YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE E-JOURNAL

E-ISSN 1309-6915
Volume: 16 Issue: 1
Year: 2020

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Megaron: 15 (4)
Volume: 15  Issue: 4 - 2020
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FRONT MATTER
1.Front Matter

Pages I - III

ARTICLE
2.Analysis of the Correlation Between Layout and Wayfinding Decisions in Hospitals
Esra Aksoy, Dicle Aydın, Gökhan İskifoğlu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.21797  Pages 509 - 520
Son yıllarda başta mimarlığın olmak üzere psikoloji, sosyoloji gibi bir çok disiplinin de araştırma konusu olan yön bulma, araştırılmaya açık gündemde olan bir konudur. Bu çalışmada hastanelerde kullanıcıların yön bulma kararları ile hastanelerin plan şemaları arasındaki ilişki deneyimsiz kullanıcılar üzerinde incelenmiştir. Insanların sıkça ziyaret ettiği ve ziyaret ederken sağlığına kavuşmak için zamanla yarıştığı mekanlar olan hastaneler, gün içersinde en fazla kullanıcı sirkülasyonuna sahip kamusal mekanlardır. Bu yüzden araştırma alanı olarak hastane mekânı tercih edilmiştir. Kullanıcıların yönlerini bulurken mekansal algılarını etkileyen faktörler gerçek mekân sahnesinde test edildi. Kullanıcıların yön bulma kararları ile hastanenin plan şeması arasında ilişki seçilen rotalar üzerinden GoPro kamera aracılığı ve VGA ile incelendi. GoPro kamera aracılığıyla kullanıcıların yön bulma davranış analizi, Depthmap yazılımı aracılığıyla da rotaların yer aldığı planların VGA gerçekleştirildi. Son olarak her iki analizden elde edilen sayısal veriler uygun sayısal çözümlemelerle SPSS 24 istatistik paketiyle yorumlanmıştır. Analizler neticesinde kullanıcıların yön bulma kararlarında hastanenin plan şemasının birçok mekansal değişkene bağlı olarak etkili olduğu ve yön bulma davranışı ile plan şemasının yüksek ilişkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
As a research topic of several disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and especially architecture, wayfinding is always on the agenda and is open to research. In this paper, the relationships between the wayfinding decisions of the users in hospitals and the layout of the hospitals were examined on inexperienced users. Hospitals, which are places where people frequently visit and compete over time to gain their health during their visits, are public spaces with the highest circulation of users during the day. For this reason, hospitals were preferred as research areas. Factors affecting the spatial perception of the users during wayfinding were tested in the real space scene. The relationship between wayfinding decisions of users and the layout of the hospital was analyzed by VGA over GoPro camera according to the selected routes. The wayfinding behavior analysis of the users was conducted with the GoPro camera. In addition, the VGA of the plans consisting of routes was performed with Depthmap software. Finally, the numerical data obtained from both analyzes were interpreted using the SPSS 24 statistical package and appropriate digital analysis. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that the layout of a hospital is effective in the wayfinding decisions of the users due to several spatial variables, and the layout and the wayfinding behavior are closely related.

3.Design Principles for Ventilation with Regenerative Results: Vernacular Diyarbakır Houses
Polat Darçın
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.58815  Pages 521 - 536
Birçok güncel yapı değerlendirme sistemi, yalnızca tekil bina ölçeğinde yapı tasarımının belirli konulardaki etkinliğini sınama üzerine odaklandıkları gerekçesiyle eleştirilmektedir. Bununla birlikte, bir yapma çevrenin farklı özelliklerinin etkileri birbirini kapsayan çeşitli ölçeklerdeki etkileşimler bağlamında ele alınırsa gerçek anlamda olumlu bir nitelikten söz edilebilir. Havalandırma ve hava ile ilişkili özellikler bu önemli etkileşim türleri arasında yer almaktadır. Uygun nitelikte mimari tasarım ilkelerinin belirlenebilmesi amacıyla, Türkiye’nin güneydoğusunda yer alan eski Diyarbakır yerleşmesi ve evleri sistematik bir değerlendirme yöntemi kullanılarak birbiriyle bağlantılı üç aşamada incelenmiştir. İlk aşama hava devinimlerinin oluşmasını ya da mevcut devinimin özelliklerinin farklılaşmasını sağlayabilen dış çevre özelliklerinin ve yapma çevrenin kullanıcısının araştırılmasına odaklanmaktadır. Bunu izleyen ikinci aşamada Diyarbakır evlerinde havalandırmanın niteliği, yapı kabuğu ve iç çevre özellikleri ele alınmaktadır. Üçüncü ve son aşamada ise kullanıcının havayla ilişkili gereksinmeleri ile çevre araştırması sonucunda elde edilen verilerin karşılaştırılması yoluyla Diyarbakır evlerinin mimari tasarımla ilişkili özellikleri havalandırma etkinliği açısından değerlendirilmektedir. Bu değerlendirme çalışması ile edilgen sistemler olarak da tanımlanabilen, havanın devinmesi ve koşullandırılmasını sağlayacak birçok mimari düzenleme ortaya konulmakta ve yapma çevrenin kendisini kapsayan daha büyük ve içerdiği daha küçük çevre sistemlerinin bir parçası olarak kurgulanması doğrultusunda, hem insanlar hem de “yer”e ait diğer canlı sistemleri için olumlu sonuçlar doğurabileceği örneklenmektedir.
Many building assessment systems are criticized due to focusing on individual building performance. However, in order to be truly positive, the effects of different aspects of a built environment should be considered through correlative impacts across different scales. Ventilation and air related properties are among these important effects. With the aim of exemplifying architectural design solutions, a vernacular settlement in the southeast of Turkey: Diyarbakır and its houses are examined with a systematic evaluation approach through architectural design under three phases. In the first phase, outdoor environment components which induce or effect air movements are examined and evaluated along with user properties. Aspects of ventilation, building envelope and indoor environment of Diyarbakır houses are analyzed in the second phase. The last phase is the evaluation of houses in terms of ventilation efficiency by relating user requirements with acquired properties of air and ventilation. With this examination, many architectural features as passive systems are revealed in order to condition and move the air. Additionally, based on findings, it can be interpreted that presuming the built environment as a part of bigger and smaller systems may create net positive results for humans and other systems of the place.

4.Hybrid-Model Simulations to Equilibrate Energy Demand and Daylight Autonomy as a Function of Window-to-Wall Ratio and Orientation For a Perimeter Office in Izmir
Hakan Baş, Tuğce Kazanasmaz
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.42223  Pages 537 - 552
Bu çalışma, İzmir iline ait iklim koşulları bağlamında tek hacimli bir ofisin gün ışığı otonomisini ve toplam enerji yükünü dengelemek için optimum pencere-duvar oranını (PDO) bulmak için yapılan entegre termal-aydınlatma simülasyonlarına dayanmaktadır. IES<VE> yazılımıyla termal ve aydınlatma hesaplarını bir modelde birleştiren “hibrit model” yaklaşımı benimsenmiştir. Olası en yüksek gün ışığı faydası ve en düşük toplam enerji tüketimini sağlamak için en uygun pencere-duvar oranı değerleri sırasıyla güney ve batıda %30, doğuda %40 ve kuzeyde %60 olarak bulunmuştur. Bulunan pencere-duvar oranı değerleri gün ışığından yararlanmayı ve görsel konforu sağlarken, aydınlatma, ısıtma ve soğutma için genel enerji tüketimini daha büyük ve daha küçük pencere-duvar oranı alternatiflerine göre daha iyi dengelemektedir. Pencere duvar oranı arttığında artan gün ışığı miktarı, yapay aydınlatma enerji tüketimini önemli ölçüde azaltmakta ve aydınlatma enerjisi kazancı, güney cephede optimum %30 pencere-duvar oranı için %79’a kadar ulaşmaktadır. Enerji tüketimi analizinde soğutma talebinin güçlü etkisi açıkça görülmektedir ve pencere alanı soğutma talebini belirleyen en önemli etkendir. Bu çalışmada ortaya çıkan sonuçlar, pencere alanındaki azalmanın her bir enerji kullanımında (ısıtma, soğutma ve aydınlatma) ne kadar enerji tasarrufu sağladığına dair mimarların geri bildirim almalarına ve önerilen optimum pencere-duvar oranı değerlerinin tasarıma aktarılmasına yardım etmektedir.
This study is based on integrated thermal-lighting simulations to find the optimal value of the window-to-wall ratio (WWR) for a perimeter, single-zone office to equilibrate daylight autonomy and overall energy demand in the climate of Izmir, Turkey. A hybrid model approach has been adopted that combines thermal and lighting calculations in a single model via the IES <VE> software. The optimal WWRs to achieve the highest possible daylight benefit and lowest overall energy use at the same time has been found to have 30% WWR in the South and West, 40% WWR in the East and 60% WWR in the North. These WWR values trade-off daylight benefit, total energy consumption for lighting, heating, and cooling, and visual comfort compared to larger and smaller WWR options. Since the daylight use can significantly reduce artificial lighting energy consumption as long as WWR increases, the energy benefit from lighting reaches 79% as a function of daylight for the South case at 30% optimal WWR. The strongest effect of cooling demand is evident in the breakdown of energy consumption and the amount of glazing is the dominant factor defining the cooling demand. The implications of this study can help architects get feedback on how to save energy for each final energy use (heating, cooling, and lighting) reduction in window space and convey this message to their designs with suggested optimal WWR values.

5.Learning From Vernacular Architecture in Architectural Education
Guliz Ozorhon, Ilker Fatih Ozorhon
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.54036  Pages 553 - 564
Bu çalışma, yerel mimarlık bilgisinin mimarlık eğitiminde etkin bir biçimde kullanılma potansiyeline odaklanmakta, bu bağlamda bir araç (ders) önermektedir. Makalenin birinci bölümünde geniş bir literatür incelemesi ile yerel mimarlığın, mimarlık ve mimarlık eğitimi açısından önemi vurgulanmakta; ikinci bölümünde ise mimarlık lisans eğitimi içinde yer alan ve öğrenme, özümseme ve yorumlama bileşenleri ile tanımlanan Yerel Mimarlıktan Öğrenmek (LF-VA) isimli ders, ayrıntıları ile ortaya konulmaktadır. Ayrıca makalede, dersi alan öğrenciler ile yapılan ve dersin ve derste kullanılan yöntemlerin amaçlarına ulaşıp ulaşmadığının anlaşılmaya çalışıldığı anketin sonuçlarına ve bu soruların yorumlanmasına da yer verilmektedir. Anket sonuçları, LF-VA’nın mimarlık öğrencileri için yerel mimarlık konusunda önemli bir farkındalık yarattığını ve dersin yerel mimarlıktan bilgi transfer etmek bağlamında kullanışlı ve özgün bir araç olarak tariflenebileceğini göstermektedir.
This study focuses on the potential for effectively using knowledge about vernacular architecture in programs of architectural education and it proposes a course as a mean of doing so. The first section emphasizes the importance of vernacular architecture in education through an extensive literature review. In the second section, the details of a course developed by the researchers called Learning from Vernacular Architecture (LF-VA), which consists of the components “learning,” “internalization” and “interpretation,” are examined along with the outcomes of a questionnaire-based survey that was administered to students who enrolled in the class. The primary aim of the questionnaire was to observe whether or to what extent the course and its methods attained their objectives. The questionnaire results demonstrated that LF-VA not only led to a significant increase in awareness among students about vernacular architecture but also showed that the course proved to be a useful and unique mean of transferring knowledge about how it can be applied.

6.A Study on the Spatial Organization of Post-Revolutionary Houses in Tabriz (1980s)
Maryam Golabi, Fatma Cana Bilsel
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.15931  Pages 565 - 577
Bu makalenin amacı, İran İslam Devrimi sonrası dönemin sosyal ve kültürel değerlerinin Tebriz’de konutların mekânsal organizasyonu üzerindeki etkisini araştırmaktır. İran İslam Devrimi 1979 yılında, dinsel doğası nedeniyle İranlıların özel ve kamusal yaşamının birçok yönünü önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Pierre Bourdieu tarafından önerilen “sosyal alan”, “fiziksel alan” ve “habitus” -gündelik yaşam pratiği- kavramları, bu araştırmada kavramsal araçlar olarak kullanılmaktadır. Burada amaçlanan, devlet ideolojisinden etkilenen sosyal alan yapısının konut mimarisine nasıl yansıtıldığını anlamaktır. Tebriz’de planlanması ve inşası Pahlavi döneminde başlayan, ancak ağırlıklı olarak İslami Devrimden sonra gelişen Vali-asr bölgesi çalışmanın bağlamı olarak seçilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın örneklemini oluşturan konutlar, mimari çizimler, fotoğraflar, konut inşaat firmaları ve mimarlarla yapılan görüşmeler üzerinden analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları, incelenen konutların mekânsal organizasyonunda uygulanan tasarım ilkelerinin çoğunun İslam Devletinin ideolojisine uygun olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Konutların iç mekânlarında, kamusal odaların özel odalardan ayrılması, planların içe dönük düzenlenmiş olması, iç ve dış mekân arasında bir geçiş alanı sağlanması ve yüksek duvarlarla çevrelenmiş avlu, İslami yaşam tarzına yönelik uygulanmış olan tasarım ilkelerinden bazılarıdır.
The present study aims to explore how socio-cultural values of post-revolutionary period influenced the spatial organization of dwellings in Iran. The Islamic revolution of Iran (1979) extremely changed many aspects of Iranians’ private and public life due to its religious nature. The notions of ‘social space’, ‘physical space’, and ‘habitus’ -practice of everyday life- proposed by Pierre Bourdieu are used as conceptual tools in this research based on a case study. The attempt is to understand how the structure of social space, which was influenced by the ideology of the new state was mirrored in the domestic architecture. Vali-asr district in Tabriz, the planning and construction of which began during Pahlavi period, but predominantly developed after the Islamic revolution was selected as the focal point of the study. The houses that constitute the sample of this study were analyzed based on their architectural drawings, photographs, and interviews made with house developers and architects. Research findings highlight that most design principles implemented in the spatial organization of the houses studied are congruent with the Islamic ideology of the state. The separation of public rooms from the private rooms in the interiors of houses, the introversion of plans, the provision of a transition space between domestic realm and the street, and a walled courtyard are examples of those design principles that are consistent with the Islamic life style emphasized by the new regime.

7.An Evaluation Based on Spatial and Social Data in Open Spaces of Mass Housing Settlements
Burak Mangut, Fatma Ahsen Özsoy
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.59455  Pages 578 - 589
Toplu konut, XIX. ve XX. yüzyıl boyunca mimarlık tartışmalarının üzerine şekillendiği önemli bir konu olmuştur. Kitlelerin barınma ihtiyaçlarını karşılamaya ilişkin hedefler çeşitli coğrafyalarda, kültürlerde ve boyutlarda ele alınmış ve üretilmiştir. Günümüzde çağdaş bir bakış açısı ile toplu barınma kültürü, kalabalıklaşan ve büyüyen şehirlere adapte olmaya çalışmaktadır. Bu süreçte; açık alanlar kentsel yaşantının ve toplumsal ilişkilerin gelişebilmesi için temel zeminlerden birini oluşturmakta; toplu konut yerleşimlerinin fiziksel ve sosyal yapıları üzerinde olumlu veya olumsuz anlamlarda önemli etkiler taşımaktadır. Bu makale, ifade edilen bu etkilerin ve açık alanların toplu konut yerleşimlerinde sahip oldukları potansiyellerin araştırılması gerekliliği düşüncesi ile ortaya konulmuştur. İnsan-çevre ilişkileri bağlamında açık mekân kullanımının fiziksel ve sosyal örüntüler üzerindeki etkilerini irdelemek araştırmanın temel sorunsalını oluşturmaktadır. Çağdaş anlamda toplu barınma kültüründe yer alan kentsel yaşantı potansiyellerinin izleri, Kuzey Avrupa’da gerçekleştirilen alan çalışması üzerinden araştırılmaktadır.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, mass housing became an important issue and focus of architectural debate. The objectives for meeting the housing need of a large number of residents have been realized in various ways over time according to geography and culture, other factors. Today, mass housing concepts must adapt to large cities that are already crowded and still growing. Open spaces are the primary platform to contribute for the development of urban life and social interaction. The absence or presence of open spaces and specific features of design are known to have a significant effect on the social structures and daily life of residents and other users. The objective of this paper was to examine these effects and value of exploring the potential of open spaces in mass housing settlements, and also to contribute to understanding the effect of open space usage on physical and social patterns in the context of human-environment relations. The use of open spaces in mass housing projects is shaped by several elements, such as spatial and other physical factors, social structures, and cultural norms. The success of contemporary mass housing settlements depends on the balance of these factors and the integrity of relations established by the users. Open spaces generate not only a basic stage for interaction of the users and the development socio-spatial life, but also reflect saturation of the settlements both physically and socially. Population density concerns, which consider the balance between privacy and community, and the density of housing expressed by the number of units and residents, are the critical factors in the physical and social structuring of mass housing projects. The diverse use of open spaces need a balanced design, which contributes to and supports the vitality of urban life. The design of mass housing units plays a role in defining the urban texture, which can include the benefits of the creation of open spaces. The principal pattern models and spatial sequence delineate the physical space of the settlement and contribute to the social structure of users. The interaction of residents with the environment and other users generates various, yet somewhat predictable, outcomes. Therefore, the functional design of mass housing and the use of open spaces, among other design elements, shape the usage potential of open spaces. The provided structure influences individual activity and relations. In this study a case study was conducted in Northern Europe to test parametric and empirical data against the hypotheses of theoretical study. The outcomes of urban living potentials in mass housing were analyzed, examining data on the spatial and social organization of selected residential areas. Housing and other organizational systems of the urban fabric were discussed, the relationships between various density conditions and spatial configurations were investigated, and the interaction between users and residential open spaces was assessed. The sequences of settlement subgroups were examined using spatial analysis, visual products, and sketching. Observations was accurately measured and evaluated on social relationships and behavior. Additionally, interviews and behavioral mapping methods were used to add further dimension to the research. The main potentials of open space usage in housing settlements and the effects on social relations are discussed in the context of the design and production of contemporary mass housing. The scale and form of multi-unit housing projects and the use of open space can generate a sequence of human-environment interaction mechanisms that contribute to a practical, spatially comfortable, and socially lively residential area.

8.A Reading on Critical Regionalism in the Northern Aegean Residential Architecture: Analysis of Ancient Troy, Traditional Ayvacık Houses and SM House
İmran Gümüş, Çiğdem Polatoğlu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.76743  Pages 590 - 605
Yerel modernizmin evrensel niteliğini Kuzey Ege konut mimarisinin bağlamsal sürekliliği üzerinden inceleyen çalışmanın asıl hedefi, SM Evi’nin bulunduğu coğrafya ile kurduğu diyaloğu, eleştirel bölgeselcilik yaklaşımını araçsallaştırarak ortaya koymaktır. Görsel ve sentaktik analizler üzerinden Kuzey Ege coğrafyasındaki megaron, geleneksel ve modern konutların bağlamsal sürekliliği ve yerel referansları deşifre edilmiştir. Bağlamsal sürekliliği eleştirel bölgeselciliğin özü olarak yorumlayan bu çalışmada, Tzonis ve Lefaivre’nin (1981) “yabancılaştırma” ilkesi ile birlikte Frampton’un ilkeleri ve mevcut literatürün yorumlanması sonucunda elde edilen “mekan deneyimi”, “yerel biçim ve malzeme”, “tektonik biçim”, “mekân-kültür ilişkisi” ilkeleri eleştirel bölgeselciliğin araçsallaştırılmasında kullanılan temel ilkeler olarak belirlenmiştir. Üç farklı zaman mekân dilimine karşılık gelen konutlar üzerinden yapılan görsel ve sentaktik analizler eleştirel bölgeselciliğin yorumlandığı beş ilkeye kaynak oluşturmuştur. Çalışma sonucunda megaron konutları, geleneksel konutlar ve SM Evi’nin mekânsal biçimlenmesinde coğrafi, kültürel, toplumsal ve teknolojik gelişmelerin doğrudan etkili olduğu; plan, cephe, mekânsal organizasyon ve kütle biçimlenmesinde SM Evi’nin tarihsel referansları ve yerel izleri sürdürdüğü; ancak avlunun konumu ve fiziksel sınırları, yapının topoğrafya ile temas etme biçimi, sofanın anlamsal ve fiziksel niteliğinde dönüşümler meydana geldiği görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak bu çalışma göstermiştir ki eleştirel bölgeselcilik sadece inşa edilen yapıların yapım süreci sonrasında değerlendirilmesine imkân veren ilkeler bütünü olmanın ötesinde, mimari tasarım sürecine entegre edilebilecek verilere sahip olan bir yönteme dönüştürülebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: eleştirel bölgeselcilik, mekan dizim, ege bölgesi, geleneksel konut, yerel mimari.
This study aims to investigate how the concept of critical regionalism can be instrumentalized in deciphering architectural continuity. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the dialogue that SM House has established with its geography by employing the critical regionalism approach. The main objective is to use critical regionalism to analyze SM House compared to other housing typologies in its geographical region and to reveal the relationship between the modern house and traditional and ancient houses. Visual and syntactic analyses of SM House and other houses from different times, including the ancient and traditional periods, were carried out in order to examine the concept of architectural continuity in the Northern Aegean and to evaluate the claim that SM House is a representative of local modernism. The visual analysis included analyses of plans, façades, and photographs. This method of analysis has been used to interpret spatial relations, materials, and construction techniques. Justified permeability graphs (gamma analysis) were used in space syntax analyses and have contributed to interpreting the social and cultural effects of spatial relationships. Real relative asymmetry (RRA), integration, visual integration, depth, and compactness values were used to interpret the possibilities of spatial experience and socialization offered by the houses examined and to analyze the readability of spaces. The contextual continuity and local reference of megaron, traditional, and modern houses in the Northern Aegean have been deciphered through visual and syntactic analyses. This study interprets contextual continuity as the essence of critical regionalism. The basic principles used in this study for the instrumentalization of critical regionalism included the principles of “spatial experience”, “local form and material”, “tectonic form”, and “space-culture relationship” derived from interpretations of the current literature and Frampton’s principles, together with the principle of “alienation” introduced by Tzonis & Lefaivre (1981). The five principles through which critical regionalism is interpreted are applied to the visual and syntactic analyses of houses corresponding to three different time-space periods. The critical regionalist approach uses the local materials in order to respond to aesthetic concerns and to maintain the mass balance of the building in addition to functional requirements. This approach transforms local architecture without breaking the relationship between the place and the building by enabling the implementation of new technological systems and materials together with contemporary principles. The courtyard, which was located in the entrance of the ancient house, served as the most social place of the house, while in the traditional house this function was taken on by the sofa, which was located at the entrance of the house and on the upper floor. The entrance of the house was used to socialize and gather in the ancient period, while sofas which were located on the upper floors in traditional houses functioned as closed spaces where occupants came together. In the ancient period, high-depth housing types were common in order to provide protection. The short edges of the houses were used as entrances. In SM House, which reflects the modern period, the entrance is accessed by opening a niche from the long edge of the residence as opposed to the short edge used in the ancient period. SM House offers a combination of the ancient courtyard and the traditional sofa. However, the sofa has been re-interpreted as a low-privacy space with direct access not only for residents but also for visitors. Here, the architect re-interpreted traditional and ancient codes using the principle of “alienation”. These data show that the changing social order, cultural transformations, and technological developments are important factors in the transformation of local elements of residential architecture. The unusual use of the local material in the SM House and the effort to communicate with visitors in addition to the residents confirm that SM House is taking a contrary approach to the traditional dwelling, which does not prioritize communication. In order to avoid dangers, the traditional house included features such as small window openings and small dimensions opened to the outdoor space; these features continued in traditional houses out of privacy concerns. In SM House, rather than traditional cultural norms, the desire to establish a strong relationship with the landscape is prioritized. Furthermore, the technological facilities incorporated into the construction of the house have been designed as outward-oriented. This house, which a family of four will use as a holiday home, has concerns independent of the spatial priorities of traditional residents. The elements that organize the place are not cultural norms, but regional references such as landscape, climate, topography, and local construction techniques. The need for defense and protection in the ancient period, a desire for privacy in the traditional period, and a preference for spatial experiences in the modern period are the main factors that influence the form of the houses. Spatial priorities varied in the relationships established with place in the three different time periods, but continuity has prevailed in the organization of space. This continuity has been made possible by local construction techniques, local materials, and topography guiding the design process. Visual analyses have found that the houses built in the three different time periods in the Northern Aegean contain the most rational solutions for their periods; syntactic analyses have shown how local and non-local subjects change and re-define the use of space. Visual and syntactic analyses of houses represented in different time periods can guide the creation of new designs that are compatible with nature, neighborhood, and context when evaluated as data sets within the critical regionalist approach. This study has shown that critical regionalism can be transformed into a method that contains data which can be integrated into the architectural design process, beyond the principles that allow for the construction of buildings to be evaluated after the construction process has been completed. The original contribution of the study to the current literature is an attempt to transform the critical regionalism approach into an analytical method through the analysis of houses built in three different time periods in the Northern Aegean. The rationale behind this method is to reveal the potential of critical regionalism as part of the design process beyond the principles of evaluation after the construction process.

9.Problems and Insights on Space: The Effects of Phenomenology Theory on the Concept of Space
Serhat Ulubay, Feride Önal
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.28482  Pages 606 - 613
Yirminci yüzyıl, mekân üzerine kavramsallaşmaların yoğunlaştığı bir zaman dilimi olmuştur. Kartezyen felsefenin rasyonelleştirici ve matematiksel kabullerle netliğe dayalı, mekânı kavrama biçimi sarsılmış, duyuların, algıların, bilincin öne alındığı, mekânın çok anlamlılığının önemsendiği kavrayış biçimi öne çıkmıştır. Bu durum, farklı bakış açıları ve sorgulama yöntemleriyle mekânın kavramsallaştırılmasının yolunu açmış, anlamını zenginleştirmiştir. Kuşkusuz, buradaki önemli rol, fenomenolojik düşünce biçiminin getirdiği, kökene dair sorular sorma ve benliğimize ait edimleri önemseme etkinliğine aittir. Fenomenolojik düşünce biçiminin, yirminci yüzyıl mekân kavrayışına ilişkin çok yönlü sorgusu, mekânın toplumsal, kültürel, psikolojik vb. yönelimle anlam sahasını genişletmiş, rasyonel ölçütler aracılığıyla algılama aralığına sıkışmış mekân düşüncesinin sınırlılığını ortadan kaldırmıştır. Bu çalışmada, yirminci yüzyılın mekân kavramsallaştırmasında önemli katkıları olan kuramcıların söylem ve düşünceleri üzerinden, mekân algısının değişimi, değişen kavrama biçimiyle beraber, kartezyen felsefeye yönelik eleştiriler ve fenomenolojik yaklaşımla mekânı okuma yöntemleri analiz edilmiş ve karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendirilmiştir
This study was an examination of a change in the means and manner of comprehension of the concept of space and the questions it stimulated as a result of the emergence and development of phenomenology theory in the last century. Phenomenology theory is based on the argument that our understanding of phenomena is related to our consciousness and promotes a different and deeper form of comprehension by asking questions about the essence of existence. The movement grew in the early 20th century, and challenged the dominant view of rational reality and Cartesian assumptions. Phenomenology encourages questioning what has been defined as concrete and immutable, arguing that phenomena can be grasped through internal experience rather than simply visible physical appearance and predefined ideas. According to this new concept, all of our acquisitions we call “experience” help us make sense of phenomena. Science makes its inquiries based on adopted and accepted experiences about the world. However, the phenomenological approach suggests that all adopted data, including the fundamentals of science, should also be questioned. The essential objective of the phenomenological philosophy is the extension of the field of questioning to explore the essence of facts and primary phenomena. This radical questioning deeply affected and altered the intellectual agenda of the time. Philosophers discussed and examined the intrinic meaning of many phenomena. The concept of space lends itself to this new kind of assessment. Phenomenology theory, which aims to contribute to the base of scientific knowledge and to increase the critical foundations of philosophy, opened the prevailing semantics of space perceived as an object defined with rational boundaries and mathematical assumptions to discussion. Phenomenological opinion, contrary to the Cartesian way of thinking, argues that space cannot be deliniated by the patterns of a single reality and that an infinite number of descriptors that we discover through our acts and experiences can be applied. This vision of space is discovered through all of our direct life experiences and queries of all realms, including the social and cultural arenas, psychology and the human body, ideas of the self and the question of existence, as well as hard science. Different methodologies applied by philosophers of the phenomenology school of thought diversified the basis of questioning and definition, and thereby enriched the concept of space. This study examines the methods of reading and questioning the definition of space used by phenomenological theorists and the contributions this interpretation brought to the conceptualization of space. The critical approach of the Cartesian way of thinking was compared and contrasted with the phenomenological view. All of the acquisitions and dynamics of life are in a state of constant change. The structure of societies, the way they comprehend the world, cultural and individual mental acts are not fixed like a photograph pausing a moment. A Cartesian view considers space to be a static and frozen object. A primary contribution of phenomenology to the intellectual environment of the last century was to encourage exploration of the fact that the mode of questioning has no boundaries, that the accepted realities cannot constitute the only starting point of our questioning. In addition, it reminded us that all our social and individual experiences are a means to grasp and comprehend the concept of space. We exist in this world through our thoughts, perceptions, memory, and body; therefore, we can comprehend phenomena, including space, via all of our life experience. This study examined how the idea of space has been shaped over time, focusing on the principles of phenomenological questioning and sixteen theorists considered pioneers of this way of thinking. The questioning put forward by phenomenology changes kinetically, and it is possible that such theories of the evaluation of space can be a tool for the diversification of today’s thought on the subject and the discovery of news ideas of space.

10.An Evaluation of the Effect of the Architectural Design of Concert Halls On Holistic Acoustic Quality
Burak Uzun, Fatma Zerhan Yüksel Can
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.55563  Pages 614 - 623
Mekânların mimari biçimlenişlerinin hacmin akustik kalitesi üzerinde önemli bir rolü vardır. Bilindiği gibi konser salonları farklı hacim büyüklükleri ve plan tiplerine sahiptir. Farklı tasarımların akustik açıdan farklı avantajları olmakla birlikte bazı tiplerin de keskin biçimde birbirinden ayrılamadığı bilinmektedir. Mekânların akustik kalitesi genellikle tüm dinleyici konumlarındaki parametre değerlerinin ortalamasının kabul edilebilir değerlere uygunluğunun incelenmesi ile gerçekleştirilir. Öte yandan parametre değerlerinin dinleyici noktalarındaki dağılımı, bir başka deyişle hacimde tüm parametreler açısından akustik konforun sağlandığı dinleyici bölgelerinin toplam dinleyici alanına oranı, mekânın bütünsel akustik kalitesini etkiler. Bu çalışmanın amacı, son dönemde inşa edilen konser salonu tipolojilerinden yola çıkarak, mimari biçimlenişin ve akustik parametrelerin dinleyici noktalarındaki değişkenliklerinin bütünsel akustik kaliteye olan etkilerini ortaya koymaktır. Bunun için 2000 yılından itibaren inşa edilmiş konser salonları ve plan tipolojileri incelenmiştir. Bunların arasından en sık kullanılan üç farklı salon tipi Odeon programında modellenmiş ve belirlenen dört adet (T30, EDT, C80 ve LF) hacim akustiği parametresi üzerinden karşılaştırması yapılmıştır. Bütünsel akustik kalite açısından konser salonlarında en olumlu sonucu veren hacim tipinin klasik dikdörtgen olduğu, sonra yanal yüzeyleri farklılaşan dikdörtgen, en son ise üzüm bağı plan tipinin geldiği belirlenmiştir.
The architectural configuration of a concert hall plays an important role in the acoustic quality and overall achievement of the venue’s purpose. There are many complex elements to be considered that contribute subtle yet important differences to the experience of the listener and the performer, including volume and plan type. The acoustic quality of a concert hall depends upon achieving an acceptable distribution of volume and other parameter values. That is, providing a satisfactory acoustic effect for each listener. The ratio of listener positions with acceptable results to the total listener area is an important consideration in the effort to create holistic acoustic quality. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of architectural form and acoustic parameters on the experience at all listener positions and the overall acoustic quality based on the typology of recently constructed concert halls. Concert halls around the world built since 2000 were analyzed and categorized according to plan type. The 3 most frequently used hall types, the traditional shoebox, the revised shoebox, and the vineyard style plan, were modeled with provisions for similar volume, audience capacity, volume per listener using Odeon software, version 15 (Odeon AS, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark). Four volume acoustics parameters were evaluated and compared: reverberation time (T30), clarity (C80), early decay time (EDT), and lateral energy fraction (LF). Listener areas in each hall were divided into grids and the quality of each parameter in each grid area was evaluated. Variation from the acceptable average values was observed in all 3 hall types in terms of zonal parameters and listener positions in different zones. Listener positions within zones where all of the parameters were within the acceptable range also varied in all hall types. The classic shoebox and improved shoebox types contained more positions in the optimum range and holistic acoustic quality than the vineyard plan. The average values are not an indication of the same acoustic quality at all positions of the hall, and plan typology affects the overall acoustic quality. The findings of this study show that calculations of small regions of the listener area will provide more accurate results of the effect of the objective parameter values of different concert hall plan typologies on the overall acoustic quality. This observation could contribute to the design of concert halls.

11.An Evaluation on the Architectural Formation, Conservation Problems and Reuse of Ayvalık Georgala (Yorgola) Inn
Melis Bilgiç, Ayten Erdem
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.48753  Pages 624 - 638
On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren Avrupa ve Osmanlı Devleti sınırları içerisinde hızla gelişen demiryolu ulaşımı, yol güzergâhları üzerindeki yerleşimlerin kent dokusu ve mimarisini etkilemiştir. Bu araştırmanın ana konusunu oluşturan ve Ayvalık’ta bulunan Georgala (Georghala) ya da Yorgola (Yorghala) Han’ın da 1873 yılında imtiyazı verilen “Bandırma, Balıkesir, Soma, Kasaba (Turgutlu) Demiryolu” hattının yapılma ihtimali üzerine inşa edildiği düşünülmektedir. Neoklasik üslupta tasarlanan iç avlulu, avlu çevresi revaklı, iki katlı kârgir bir yapı olan Georgala Han, muhtemelen 1870’li yıllarda ya da hemen sonrasında inşa edilmiş olup, özgün konaklama işlevinde bir süre kullanıldıktan sonra savaş yıllarında kullanılmamış, Cumhuriyet Döneminde de farklı işlevlere göre uyarlanmıştır. Günümüzde özgünlük değerini kısmen yitirmiş ve âtıl durumda bırakılmış olan yapının yeniden kullanımı söz konusudur. Bu amaçla; temel konusu Georgala Han için uygun koruma projesinin sunulması ve tartışılması olan çalışmada, özgün mimari özellikleri ile süreç içinde geçirdiği değişiklikler araştırılmış ve belgelenmiş, analitik rölövesi yapılmış, arşiv araştırmaları ile yapıdan elde edilen bilgi ve belgelere göre restitüsyon önerileri hazırlanmış ve yapıya uygun yeni bir işlev belirlenerek müdahale kararlarını içeren restorasyon projesi oluşturulmuştur. Bu çalışmada, güncel literatürde pek fazla bilinirliği olmayan Georgala Han’ın özgün değerleri, koruma sorunları araştırılmış, yeni bir işlev ile korunmasına yönelik müdahale yöntemleri önerilmiş ve edinilen bilgi ve belgelerin paylaşımının sağlanması hedeflenmiştir.
Railway transportation developed rapidly within the borders of Europe and the Ottoman Empire with the Industrial Revolution, and it has affected the urban fabric and architecture of the settlements through which the train way pass. Georgala or Yorgola Inn, which is the main subject of this research, was built with a mosque and a barracks in Ayvalık on the possibility of constructing the “Bandırma, Balıkesir, Soma, Kasaba (Turgutlu) Railway” line that was granted in 1873. Therefore it is possible to conclude that Georgala Inn, which is designed in a neoclassical style and a two-storey masonry structure with an inner courtyard surrounded by porticos, was probably built in the 1870s or just after. After the inn was used for a short period in its original accommodation function, it remained dysfunctional during the Great War era, and then it was adapted for different functions during the Republic Period. At the present, the building has been abandoned and partially lost its authenticity value, and it is planned to be reused through a proper conversion by the Municipality of Ayvalık. The purpose of the present study is to explain the steps of the preservation process of this special building, which started by preparing the Conservation Project. Within the scope of the study, the original architectural features of Georgala Inn and the changes it went through in the historica process were examined, the analytical survey was made, restitution proposals were prepared according to the documents obtained from the archive research, and the restoration project was proposed, including the appropriate new function determined for the building, along with intervention decisions. By this study; the authenticity values and conservation problems of Georgala Inn, which is not well known in the literature up to date, have been identified, and intervention methods have been proposed to preserve it with a new function. Georgala Inn was a complex example to deal with the history, layers, interventions, and additions, but it provides a very instructive process and experience to understand how to study “inside” and during the research practice “outside” of a cultural asset. The first part of the article gives information about the architectural and urban characteristics of the Ayvalık district. In the second part, the historical background, location, spatial organization, construction technique, and materials of the building are examined throughly. The Inn is shaped around a central inner courtyard surrounded by porticos and covered with a glass skylight supported by metal construction elements, which is thought to had been built in later periods as an addition. The street façade of the four-open-faced building is stone-coated in Neoclassical style and is one of the most characteristic façades in Ayvalık. The restitution or historical analysis process is the main theme of the third part of the present study. There was a lack of archival documents about the building to enable an understanding of the first construction period Given the circumstances, the study brings the importance of physical traces which can be found on the building itself into the light, as a complimentary way of conducting retrospective research on specific architecture when the archive records are insufficient. As a result of examination with the findings of analytic survey and restitution projects, the original condition, previous layers, and current additions have been successfully identified. Besides, the observation tower which does not exist today has been identified through the old photographs and has been included in the first construction period restitution study. The fourth section of the study revolves around how some of the Georgala Inn’s initial features were lost over time, due to the building’s positioning as an internal factor, and traffic density, long term natural causes, improper uses and repairs, abandonment as external causes After evaluating the analytical survey and restitution, it is proposed to reuse the building as a “Cultural Centre” in the restoration approach which is presented in the fifth part. During the adaptation to the new proposed function, the main approach is to preserve the original layout and spaces, thus improper addition walls will be removed and the new required spaces will be designed with divider walls made of easily demountable materials. The concept of preserving the building with the pre-existing additions has been adopted due to the reasons listed below;

- The lack of historic records that based on first construction period of the building;
- People of Ayvalık remembering the structure as a “hospital”, as it was previously used as a medical institution;
- The thought that removing the additions can cause damage to the building.

In line with the restoration approaches introduced as the principal framework, the restoration practise of this important building which bears the importance of being a “historical document”, has “antiquity”, “authenticity” and “artistic” as well as “uniqueness”, “group”, “memory” and “use” values, should be carried out meticulously by conservation experts.

12.Process Design and Management Proposal for Urban Design Guides in the Scope of Community-Based Design Approach; Ordu Case
Kevser Üstündağ, Arzu Erturan, Gül Sivaslıoğlu Özaltın, Ezgi Özer
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.60437  Pages 639 - 662
Hızlı kentleşmenin etkisiyle artan plansız yapılaşma, pek çok kentte olduğu gibi, kuvvetli doğal eşikler ile çevrelenmiş ve kısıtlı bir alanda gelişim imkânı bulmuş Ordu kent merkezinde de kent kimliği ve nitelikli kamusal mekân gelişimi üzerinde sorunlar yaratmıştır. Kent kimliğinin güçlendirilmesi ve yerel halkın kültürüne uygun kamusal alan kullanım ihtiyaçlarının karşılanması amacıyla; yerel yönetim, özel sektör ve kamu iş birliği ile “Ordu Kentsel Tasarım Rehberi Ön Çalışması” gerçekleştirilmiştir. Rehber ön çalışmasının yaklaşımı tanımlanırken; toplumsal katılımlı bir süreç yerine, uzman görüşü ağırlıklı tasarım süreci uygulamalarının yerele özgü niteliklerden kopması bir problem olarak ele alınmıştır. Bu nedenle çalışmanın amacı; bir kente özgü olarak yerleşimin tasarım konularını yönlendiren yerel kentsel tasarım rehberlerinin kurgusu için, toplumsal katılımı ve yerele özgü değerleri tasarımın odağına alan süreç yönelimli bir yaklaşım geliştirmektir. “Ordu Kentsel Tasarım Rehberi Ön Çalışması”nın bir çıktısı olan bu makalede; geliştirilen “toplum temelli tasarım” yaklaşımı, süreç tasarımı ve yönetimi çerçevesinde açıklanmıştır. Farklı ölçek ve temalardaki yerel kentsel tasarım rehberlerine adapte edilebilecek olan yaklaşım, pilot çalışma olarak kent mobilyaları ve sokak zemin tasarımı teması üzerinden ve Ordu ili özelinde örneklendirilmiştir. Bu kapsamda; saha çalışmasında gerçekleştirilen katılım yöntemleri açıklanmış; Ordu’ya özgü tasarım, uygulama ve programların oluşumuna yönelik süreç tasarımı ve yönetimi şemaları sunulmuş; tasarım ve uygulama kriterlerine ilişkin tablolar aktarılmıştır. Çalışmada nitel ve nicel karma yöntemler birlikte kullanılmış; literatür taraması yapılmış, Ordu üzerine çeşitli çalıştay, katılım toplantıları ve rehberli yürüyüşler düzenlenmiştir. Makalenin, yerele özgü kentsel tasarım önerileri geliştirmeyi amaçlayan çalışmalarda, toplumsal boyutun nasıl odağa taşınabileceğine ilişkin süreç yönetimi ve tasarımı konusunda ilgili kurumlara ve uzmanlara yardımcı olacağı düşünülmektedir.
In this article, the “Process Management and Process Design” that emerged within the scope of the “Ordu Urban Design Guide Preliminary Study” project carried out in May-August 2018 is evaluated. This project is in cooperation with MCMill Architecture and Ordu Metropolitan Municipality, ITU Nova Technology Transfer Office and Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Architecture, City and Regional Planning Department. It is aimed to involve different stakeholders in the city such as public, university, non-governmental and private sector in the process and to experience “co-production” with this study. In the study, the separation of the design projects from the characteristics of the local is considered as a problem. It has been demonstrated that different dynamics are needed for local design; Community needs and local culture were considered at the top of these dynamics. Within the scope of the study, “community-based design” approach has been adopted. In this study, it is aimed to present a local-specific urban design guide process in which the society is included using innovative participation methods. It is aimed that the Preliminary Study of the Urban Design Guide developed for the city of Ordu will constitute a base for an urban design guide that may be produced in the future. Workshops, participation meetings, guided walks held within the scope of field work in Ordu were among the methods of this study. Carried out in two different scales, namely in Ordu and Altınordu, the study data was investigated and examples of how this data can provide input for future urban design processes and Process Design and Management of the designs are provided. With this work, the processes and tools from data collection to design, from production to post-product programs were defined. Emphasis was placed on equal and joint participation at all stages. Ordu has been carried to tangible examples with design and process suggestions developed on the basis of local identity and culture, social needs and expectations, and the values of urban memory. The community-based design approach proposed in this context aims to bring a sustainable perspective that emphasizes the urban identity and is focused on social participation and open to development. This approach can be applied even in cities with different scales, populations, geographical conditions and cultures, and can be used by local governments, relevant institutions and persons. In this process, it is important that the actors in the city (Eastern Black Sea Development Agency, Ordu University, Ordu Chamber of Commerce, Ordu Chamber of Architects etc.) work together in all projects to be developed based on the identity of Ordu. It is important to ensure coordination and communication with local people in the stages of this multi actor process and to have a structure that addresses the demands of the local by ensuring participation in the processes. It is thought that the participation of stakeholders in the process can be ensured through developing tools used for this purpose such as social media portals, websites, and mobile applications. In the Preliminary Study of Ordu Urban Design Guide, which was emphasized in the “community-based design” approach; It was ensured that the design process was implemented in the data collection and analysis phase. Based on the findings obtained with social participation methods to discover the local dynamics and needs of the society, the steps of the design process based on the identity of Ordu have been defined. As the first example of this process, urban furniture and floor design process was developed within the scope of the study. The importance of this work is to produce an urban design element for the local culture and values of the city. It is also a study that will allow the development of local-specific designs and is exemplified by process design and management recommendations developed specifically for the city of Ordu. The community-based design approach adopted in the study emphasizes that the process is carried out in interaction with social dynamics by taking into account the expectations and needs of the society and program proposals are developed in this direction. In addition, it is important to establish the scope and definitions of local design, production and post-product programs, and re evaluate them in line with the changing social needs and expectations.

13.Spatial Organization of Public Buildings: An Evaluation on the Capital City of Turkey
Ezgi Orhan
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.64325  Pages 663 - 673
Türkiye’nin başkenti olmadan önce Anadolu’nun küçük bir kasabası olan Ankara, Cumhuriyet’in ilan edilmesinin ardından temel bir mekânsal yapılanma süreci deneyimlemiştir. Erken Cumhuriyet döneminin modernist vizyonu ve korumacı ekonomik politikaları kentin mekânsal yapılanmasını belirlemiş ve genç rejimin ikonları haline gelen kamu yapılarını üretmiştir. Doksan yıllık dönemde Ankara’nın kent rejimi ve simgelerini yeniden tasarlayan farklı politik-ekonomik iklimler deneyimlenmiştir. En somut değişimlerden biri, her dönemin ekonomik kabullerini ve kentsel politikalarını mekânsal ve mimari organizasyonları ve simgesel anlamlarıyla ileten kamu yapılarında gözlemlenmektedir. Bu çalışma, kamu yapılarına odaklanarak kentsel simgelerin değişimini araştırmaktadır. Bunun için, mekânsal organizasyonları, mimari projeleri ve kamuya ilettikleri mesajları araştırmak üzere başkentteki bakanlık binaları seçilmiştir. Çalışma, bakanlıklar niyetiyle tasarlanan kümelere odaklanarak politik ve ekonomik sistemdeki değişimlere göre temel olarak üç dönemde irdelenmektedir; kuruluş dönemi, liberal yıllar ve neoliberal yıllar. Çalışmanın sonucunda, kamu yapılarının üretildikleri dönemlerin ana güdüsünü yansıttığı, Türkiye örneğinde ise bu yapıların mekânsal düzenlemelerinin politik, ekonomik ve sosyal yapı hakkında bilgi içeren araçlar oldukları ortaya konulmuştur.
Ankara, a small town of Anatolia before becoming the capital of Turkey, experienced a fundamental spatial restructuring process following the proclamation of the Republic. The vision of modernity and protective economic structure of the Early Republican era determined the spatial configuration of the city and produced public buildings as the icons of the young regime. The last ninety years witnessed different political economic climates redesigning the urban regime of Ankara and symbols. One of the most tangible transformations is observed in the public buildings, which convey the economic understandings and urban politics of each period through their spatial and architectural organizations, and symbolic meanings. This study explores the change in the urban symbols with an emphasis on public buildings. For this, the ministry buildings of the capital city were selected to investigate spatial organizations, archistar buildings, and the messages conveyed to the public. Focusing on the the intentionally developed clusters of ministries, this study adressed basically three periods concerning the change in political and economic systems; the foundation period, the liberal years and the neoliberal era. As a result of this study it is stated that that in the Turkish case public buildings reflect the main motives of the period they were produced, their spatial organization serves as a medium containing information about the political, economic and social structure of each period.

14.The Hennebique Reinforced-Concrete Construction System Traces in Galata Port
Banu Çelebioğlu, Uzay Yergün
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.91979  Pages 674 - 685
1850’li yıllardan itibaren bütün dünyayı saran modernleşme hareketlerinden ve mimarlık alanındaki değişimden Osmanlı Devleti de etkilenmiştir. Osmanlı Devleti’nin dış ticaret açığının büyüdüğü ve Avrupa sermayesinin Osmanlı ekonomisi ve maliyesi üzerindeki denetiminin arttığı bu dönemde, Batılı şirketler ve kişiler imtiyazlı olarak İstanbul’un imarına katkıda bulunmuşlardır. Bu bağlamda, bir liman kenti olan İstanbul’da ilk rıhtım inşası 1895 yılında Fransız bir girişimci olan Marius Mitchel tarafından Galata bölgesinde, Karaköy-Tophane arasında yer alan kıyı şeridinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. 1907 yılında Mitchel’in işi bırakması ve şirkete Osmanlı Bankası’nın ortak olmasıyla İstanbul limanı üzerine gümrük işleri için Galata Rüsumat Binası (1907-1911), dönemin ofis işlevlerine uygun olarak da Çinili Rıhtım Han (1910-1911) ve Merkez Rıhtım Han (1912-1914) yaptırılmıştır. On dokuzuncu yüzyıl mimarlık anlayışından XX. yüzyıla geçiş döneminin ürünleri olan Galata Rüsumat Binası, Çinili ve Merkez Ruhtım Hanlar mimari biçimlenmeleri, işlevleri ve özellikle inşa edildikleri “Hennebique” yapım teknolojisi ile dönemin modern ve öncü yapılarıdır. Fransız mühendis François Hennebique’in 1892 yılında patentini aldığı yapım sistemiyle, 1902-1913 yılları arasında, Türkiye’de içinde rıhtım yapılarının da yer aldığı yaklaşık 70 uygulama yapılmıştır. Ancak 2016 yılında başlayan Galataport Projesi kapsamında rıhtımdaki yapılar otel binalarına dönüştürülmeye başlanmıştır. Han yapılarının plan şemaları yeni işleve göre değiştirilmiş, gümrük binasının cephe duvarları dekor olarak kullanılarak iç mekânlar tamamen yıkılmıştır. Bu bağlamda, dönemin özgünlüğünü yansıtan üretim teknolojileri de kentin hafızasından ve mimarlık tarihinden silinmiştir. Bu makalede, Galata Rıhtımı’nın oluşum süreci irdelenerek, İstanbul’da inşa edilen ilk “Hennebique” betonarme yapılardan olan Galata Rüsumat Binası, Çinili ve Merkez Rıhtım Hanların özgün konstrüksiyon sistemleri tanımlanmıştır.
In the 1850s, the modernism movement and the consequent changes in architecture that influenced the whole world had an impact on the Ottoman Empire. In this period, not only the external trade deficit of the Ottoman Empire increased, but also the control of European capital over the Ottoman economy kept growing. In addition, western companies and entrepreneurs had contributed to the public works in Istanbul. In this context, the first quay in Istanbul was constructed in 1895 by a French entrepreneur, Marius Mitchel, on the shore between Karaköy and Tophane in Galata region. Galata Customs Building (1907-1911) was constructed for the customs of Istanbul port followed by Çinili Quay Khan (1910-1911) and Central Quay Khan (1912-1914), which were constructed in accordance with the office functions of this period. However, within the Galataport project started in 2016, the buildings on the dock began to be transformed into hotel buildings. The plan schemes of the Khan buildings were changed according to the new design and the facades of the Custom building changed their functions by leaving them in a dictation of decor. In this context, the production technologies that reflect the authenticity of the period have also been erased from the memory of the city and history of architecture. Port buildings have lost their original values significantly due to reasons such as misuse, unqualified additions, improper repairs, function change and finally the preference of reconstruction in terms of intervention. The purpose of this study is to reveal these deteriorations and changes and to document and examine the original values of the structures. On-site observations and detailed measurements of the port buildings, examination of their surveys, and analytical analyzes were conducted through scanning archive documents (e.g., maps, photographs, documents), journals, books and articles related to the subject in question. The transformation of the traditional Ottoman commercial life starting with the westernization period has led to the construction of modern western commercial buildings in Istanbul since the mid-19th century. Port buildings formed the silhouette of the Istanbul port in the early years of the 20th century were built using Western design schemes for sea transport and commercial activities, as well as modern construction technologies of the period. The construction of the buildings built with early reinforced concrete production technologies adds a distinct value to these structures in terms of being a few examples documenting the structural history and development process of Ottoman architecture. Today, within the scope of the Galataport project, the construction history, functions, plan schemes and construction systems of the original buildings in the port area, which will be used as hotel, office, port, food and beverage service and shopping areas, which are described as “tourism complex”, have been evaluated and examined in terms of contemporary conservation methods. The commercial buildings of the Port were the modern and pioneer buildings of their period because of their architectural features, building materials and “Hennebique” construction technology, which is different from the traditional construction systems of Ottoman architecture. François Hennebique was a French engineer who patented his pioneering reinforced-concrete construction system in 1892. Between 1902 and 1913, around 70 structures, including also the port buildings, were built using the Hennebique system in Turkey. With the Galataport project aiming to renovate Istanbul Port, the buildings are facing the threat of losing their original construction technologies with so-called “restoration” interventions that will only preserve their mass, height and façade design. Buildings such as Central Quay Khan and Galata Customs Building should be preserved and rehabilitated with their original construction material and technique, not only because of their architectural value, but also for their characteristics reflecting the industrial and technological level of their period. Otherwise, it will unfortunately be an inevitable result that the vivid examples of the early period of the “Hennebique” reinforced concrete structural system in Istanbul may become a story of the past that can only be found in the written literature. In this study the formation process of the Galata Port was examined and the original construction systems of the port buildings, which are one of the first Hennebique reinforced concrete structures built in Istanbul were defined.



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