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The Hennebique Reinforced-Concrete Construction System Traces in Galata Port [Megaron]
Megaron. 2020; 15(4): 674-685 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2020.91979  

The Hennebique Reinforced-Concrete Construction System Traces in Galata Port

Banu Çelebioğlu, Uzay Yergün
Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Restoration, Istanbul

In the 1850s, the modernism movement and the consequent changes in architecture that influenced the whole world had an impact on the Ottoman Empire. In this period, not only the external trade deficit of the Ottoman Empire increased, but also the control of European capital over the Ottoman economy kept growing. In addition, western companies and entrepreneurs had contributed to the public works in Istanbul. In this context, the first quay in Istanbul was constructed in 1895 by a French entrepreneur, Marius Mitchel, on the shore between Karaköy and Tophane in Galata region. Galata Customs Building (1907-1911) was constructed for the customs of Istanbul port followed by Çinili Quay Khan (1910-1911) and Central Quay Khan (1912-1914), which were constructed in accordance with the office functions of this period. However, within the Galataport project started in 2016, the buildings on the dock began to be transformed into hotel buildings. The plan schemes of the Khan buildings were changed according to the new design and the facades of the Custom building changed their functions by leaving them in a dictation of decor. In this context, the production technologies that reflect the authenticity of the period have also been erased from the memory of the city and history of architecture. Port buildings have lost their original values significantly due to reasons such as misuse, unqualified additions, improper repairs, function change and finally the preference of reconstruction in terms of intervention. The purpose of this study is to reveal these deteriorations and changes and to document and examine the original values of the structures. On-site observations and detailed measurements of the port buildings, examination of their surveys, and analytical analyzes were conducted through scanning archive documents (e.g., maps, photographs, documents), journals, books and articles related to the subject in question. The transformation of the traditional Ottoman commercial life starting with the westernization period has led to the construction of modern western commercial buildings in Istanbul since the mid-19th century. Port buildings formed the silhouette of the Istanbul port in the early years of the 20th century were built using Western design schemes for sea transport and commercial activities, as well as modern construction technologies of the period. The construction of the buildings built with early reinforced concrete production technologies adds a distinct value to these structures in terms of being a few examples documenting the structural history and development process of Ottoman architecture. Today, within the scope of the Galataport project, the construction history, functions, plan schemes and construction systems of the original buildings in the port area, which will be used as hotel, office, port, food and beverage service and shopping areas, which are described as “tourism complex”, have been evaluated and examined in terms of contemporary conservation methods. The commercial buildings of the Port were the modern and pioneer buildings of their period because of their architectural features, building materials and “Hennebique” construction technology, which is different from the traditional construction systems of Ottoman architecture. François Hennebique was a French engineer who patented his pioneering reinforced-concrete construction system in 1892. Between 1902 and 1913, around 70 structures, including also the port buildings, were built using the Hennebique system in Turkey. With the Galataport project aiming to renovate Istanbul Port, the buildings are facing the threat of losing their original construction technologies with so-called “restoration” interventions that will only preserve their mass, height and façade design. Buildings such as Central Quay Khan and Galata Customs Building should be preserved and rehabilitated with their original construction material and technique, not only because of their architectural value, but also for their characteristics reflecting the industrial and technological level of their period. Otherwise, it will unfortunately be an inevitable result that the vivid examples of the early period of the “Hennebique” reinforced concrete structural system in Istanbul may become a story of the past that can only be found in the written literature. In this study the formation process of the Galata Port was examined and the original construction systems of the port buildings, which are one of the first Hennebique reinforced concrete structures built in Istanbul were defined.

Keywords: Galata port, Hennebique; Istanbul; late Ottoman architecture; reinforced-concrete construction.


Hennebique Betonarme Yapı Üretim Teknolojisinin Galata Limanı’ndaki İzleri

Banu Çelebioğlu, Uzay Yergün
Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Restorasyon Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul

1850’li yıllardan itibaren bütün dünyayı saran modernleşme hareketlerinden ve mimarlık alanındaki değişimden Osmanlı Devleti de etkilenmiştir. Osmanlı Devleti’nin dış ticaret açığının büyüdüğü ve Avrupa sermayesinin Osmanlı ekonomisi ve maliyesi üzerindeki denetiminin arttığı bu dönemde, Batılı şirketler ve kişiler imtiyazlı olarak İstanbul’un imarına katkıda bulunmuşlardır. Bu bağlamda, bir liman kenti olan İstanbul’da ilk rıhtım inşası 1895 yılında Fransız bir girişimci olan Marius Mitchel tarafından Galata bölgesinde, Karaköy-Tophane arasında yer alan kıyı şeridinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. 1907 yılında Mitchel’in işi bırakması ve şirkete Osmanlı Bankası’nın ortak olmasıyla İstanbul limanı üzerine gümrük işleri için Galata Rüsumat Binası (1907-1911), dönemin ofis işlevlerine uygun olarak da Çinili Rıhtım Han (1910-1911) ve Merkez Rıhtım Han (1912-1914) yaptırılmıştır. On dokuzuncu yüzyıl mimarlık anlayışından XX. yüzyıla geçiş döneminin ürünleri olan Galata Rüsumat Binası, Çinili ve Merkez Ruhtım Hanlar mimari biçimlenmeleri, işlevleri ve özellikle inşa edildikleri “Hennebique” yapım teknolojisi ile dönemin modern ve öncü yapılarıdır. Fransız mühendis François Hennebique’in 1892 yılında patentini aldığı yapım sistemiyle, 1902-1913 yılları arasında, Türkiye’de içinde rıhtım yapılarının da yer aldığı yaklaşık 70 uygulama yapılmıştır. Ancak 2016 yılında başlayan Galataport Projesi kapsamında rıhtımdaki yapılar otel binalarına dönüştürülmeye başlanmıştır. Han yapılarının plan şemaları yeni işleve göre değiştirilmiş, gümrük binasının cephe duvarları dekor olarak kullanılarak iç mekânlar tamamen yıkılmıştır. Bu bağlamda, dönemin özgünlüğünü yansıtan üretim teknolojileri de kentin hafızasından ve mimarlık tarihinden silinmiştir. Bu makalede, Galata Rıhtımı’nın oluşum süreci irdelenerek, İstanbul’da inşa edilen ilk “Hennebique” betonarme yapılardan olan Galata Rüsumat Binası, Çinili ve Merkez Rıhtım Hanların özgün konstrüksiyon sistemleri tanımlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Betonarme, Galata limanı; Hennebique; İstanbul; Osmanlı mimarlığı.


Banu Çelebioğlu, Uzay Yergün. The Hennebique Reinforced-Concrete Construction System Traces in Galata Port. Megaron. 2020; 15(4): 674-685

Corresponding Author: Banu Çelebioğlu, Türkiye


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