YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE E-JOURNAL

E-ISSN 1309-6915
Volume: 16 Issue: 4
Year: 2020

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Megaron: 15 (3)
Volume: 15  Issue: 3 - 2020
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ARTICLE
1.Open Design Education: Addressing Accountability in the Age of Computing
Desantila Hysa, Mine Özkar
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.32650  Pages 343 - 349
Yükseköğretimde öğrenim çıktıları olarak bilgi ve becerileri tamamlayan tutumlar, doğrudan değerlendirilemeyen yeterlilikler olarak genellikle geri planda kalır. Mimarlık eğitiminde hümanist, sürdürülebilir ve çevreci yaklaşımlar küresel ve yerel gündemlere uygun olarak artarken okulların stüdyo kültürlerinde benimsenen tutumlar, işbirlikçi ve katılımcı süreçlerden çok bireysel yaratıcı süreçler ön plana çıkabilmektedir. Hesaplamalı tasarım yöntemleri ise tasarımın muhakeme adımlarını açık ederek paylaşımcı tutumları beslerken, açık ve sorumluluk bilinci güden tasarım kültürleri oluşturmak için yeni fırsatlar sunmaktadır. Bu makale, hesap verebilir olmayı bir tutum olarak tasarım eğitiminde uygulamak ve değerlendirmek amacıyla kullanılan hesaplamalı tasarım yöntemlerine disiplinler arası bir literatürle bağlam ve kuramsal bir çerçeve sunmaktadır. Tasarım eğitiminin ilk yılında, süreci dışsallaştıran görsel kuralların kullanımı ile görsel hesaplama uygulamaları, süreci açıkça paylaşan, sorgulayan ve bağlamlarıyla ilişkilendiren tutumları beslemeye yarar.
Attitudes complement knowledge and skills but are often overlooked as assessable competencies in higher education. In architectural design curriculum, attitudes are especially relevant in order to ensure the training of responsible designers. As humanistic and environmental approaches are increasingly at the forefront, the studio cultures of the schools seek to cultivate collaborative and participatory skills on individual creativity. The parallel acclaim of computational methods expounds the reasoning processes of design and new opportunities arise for open and liable cultures of design. However, the task of connecting these methods to a broader competency in design is still not fulfilled. This paper provides an interdisciplinary context for accountability as an attitude in design education and a conceptual framework for implementing and assessing it through computational methods. It argues that computation in early-design education, in the form of shape rules and devices of visual computing, is supportive in instilling reflective attitudes by promoting knowledge sharing with accountability among learners.

2.Effect of Graffiti As Placemaker: Istanbul Karakoy Underpass Example
Ayşe Gül Gemci, Deniz Erinsel Önder
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.64872  Pages 350 - 368
Bu yazıda, sokak sanatı örneklerinden grafiti, yer oluşturma kavramı üzerinden ele alınmaktadır. Grafitinin, 1980’li yılların başında kentsel mekânlarda yayılan görselliği, sosyal ve mekânsal sorunları da beraberinde getirmiştir. Nedenselliği sürekli yenilenen, tür ve tarzlara ayrılarak gelişen grafitinin, mekânsal bağlamı da buna bağlı olarak değişkenlik göstermektedir. Bu nedenle; grafiti ve mekân etkileşimini, farklı disiplinlerin bakış açıları ile buluşturabilecek, grafitinin sosyal ve mekânsal boyutunun içinde barındırdığı insan ve mekân etkileşimini merkezine alan araştırmalara gereksinim artmaktadır. Yapılan bu çalışmanın amacı; kentsel mekân ve grafiti arasındaki çok yönlü etkileşimin, mekân ve kullanıcılarına yansıyan duygusal boyutlarını belirleyerek, grafitinin yer oluşturucu etkisini tartışmaktır. Çalışmada, yer oluşturma pratiği Etkileşim Üçgeni yönteminden (Triangulation Process) yararlanılarak; mekânsal uyarıcı etken (external stimulus) olarak, izinsiz grafiti örneklerinin (illegal graffiti) kentsel mekân ile olan etkileşimine odaklanılmaktadır. İstanbul’da grafitinin yoğun olarak bulunduğu Karaköy’ün merkezindeki Karaköy Alt Geçidi ve Çarşısında alan çalışması yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın gözlem süreci 36 aya (2015-2018 yılları arası) yayılmakta olup, alanda yazılma-silinme ve tekrar yazılma döngüsü içinde, 54 farklı grafiti konfigürasyonu belirlenmiştir. Bu döngüsel durumdan mekân kullanıcılarına geçen yer duygusunun boyutları ile grafitinin mekânsal nitelikleri arasındaki etkileşimin yer oluşturucu etkisi, hazırlanan çalışma modelinden yararlanılarak ortaya konulmaktadır. Yapılan bu çalışmanın grafiti ve yer oluşturma kavramını tartışan yeni araştırmalara farklı bir bakış sunması ve yol gösterici olması hedeflenmektedir.
This research paper aims to discuss the spatial interaction of graffiti as unauthorized marking activity in public spaces. It proposes to clarify why interactions between graffiti and people in public spaces are important, and how graffiti evokes an external stimulus on people who see these marks on the surfaces of public spaces. In this article, the spatial effect of graffiti on the street is discussed through the concept of place-making. The importance of graffiti in public spaces began to be discussed in the early 1980s, and was considered t a kind of unauthorized street activity often associated with vandalism. However, in the 2000s this changed slightly and graffiti also began to be considered as a profound actor in bringing vitality and increased sociability to the streets according to the qualities of place-making. This drastic change in seeing graffiti has intensified the discussions about the new relationships between the concept of place-making and the motivations for graffiti writing in public spaces. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to examine the various interactions between people and public spaces over the social and spatial effects of graffiti. Through a Qualitative Research approach based on a deeper understanding of social life, this paper focuses on the interactions between graffiti and people in public spaces. The conceptual framework of the paper is based on Whyte’s Triangulation Process and the qualities of the sense of place that are related to place-making practice derived from the seminal literature of this work. Accordingly, a case study was completed via field work covering thirty-six months between 2015-2018. This fieldwork was conducted in the Karakoy Underpass, where Istanbul’s graffiti-covered surfaces are frequently noticed. During the observation period, fifty-four different graffiti configurations were observed in situ and collected as visual documentation using photo and video recordings. Additionally, during the interview period of the fieldwork, conversations using semi-structured questions were carried out with the pedestrians passing through, graffiti writers, and the shopkeepers in the Karakoy Underpass. In order to decompose the data collected from the fieldwork, a prototype “Cross Matrix Table” was designed to show the multiple relationships between the spatial effect of graffiti and the triangulated interaction of public spaces. This Table also highlights the triangulated position of graffiti as an external stimulus that connects with the people as actors of everyday urban flux in public spaces. This paper provides empirical insights on how the Triangulation Process reflects the social interactions in public spaces. Accordingly, this research paper includes Qualitative Research steps of data collection and decomposes the findings with a suggested model “Cross Matrix Table” at the end of the study. The suggested “Cross Matrix Table” model with the decomposed data and case study demonstrates that there is an architectural need to investigate how everyday street art activities can reflect the qualities of the sense of place. This study not only enables graffiti to be seen as an activity performed on the street, but also to arouse interest in the concept of triangulation itself.

3.Structure and Material Assessment Model for Historical Building Extension Design
Lory Zakar, Özlem Eren
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.48285  Pages 369 - 383
Türkiye’de, tarihi çevrenin sürdürülmesi kapsamında tarihi binaya ek bina yapımı ile ilgili karar ve uygulamalarda, tarihi binayı taklit etme eğilimi olan, tarihi binayı fiziksel ve/veya anlamsal açıdan zedeleyen yeni yapılar ile tarihi çevrenin niteliksizleştirilmesi sorunuyla karşılaşılmaktadır. Mimarın çok disiplinli entegre bir tasarım süreci yürütememesi, tarihi binaya ek yapımı konusundaki ilke ve yaklaşımların uygulamaya yönelik bir sistematik içerisinde ortaya konamaması gibi etmenler bu sürecin özümsenmesini zorlaştırmaktadır. Bu sürecin kolaylaştırılması ve ortaya çıkan ürünün belli bir tasarım kalitesi düzeyinin üstünde olmasının sağlanması amacıyla tarihi binaya ek bina yapım sürecindeki etken kriterlerinin tanımlanması ve bu kriterlerin uygulamaya yönelik somutlaştırılması gerekmektedir. Bu varsayımla yola çıkan bu çalışmada, mimarlara yönelik olarak, tarihi binaya ek yapımı ile ilgili karşılaşılan sorunların çözümüne katkıda bulunacak, uygulamaya yönelik avantaj sağlayacak bir karar verme modelinin ortaya konulması amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaca üç temel aşamalı bir yöntemle ulaşılmıştır. Tarihi binalara ek yapımında bütünleşiklik elde edebilmek için temel kriterler tanımlanmış, bu kriterler için uygulamaya yönelik sınır değerleri önerilmiş ve Analitik Hiyerarşi Prosesi kullanılarak tarihi bina ve ek bina arayüzü için strüktür ve malzeme seçiminde karar verme modeli oluşturulmuştur. Yapısal kriterler başta olmak üzere, bütünleştirme kriterleri için belirlenecek sınır değerleri, ek yapımının bir sistematiğe oturtulmasına katkıda bulunacaktır. Bu yönüyle çalışma, tarihi binalara yapılan eklerin yapısal boyutlarının araştırma alanındaki boşluğun azaltılmasına katkıda bulunur. Türkiye’de Bölge Koruma Kurullarına proje sunma aşamasında, mimarın yararlanabileceği bir araç olan bu model, disiplinler arası çalışmayı kolaylaştırma ve optimize etmenin yanı sıra tarihi binaya ek tasarımını bilimsel bir temele oturtma imkânı sağlamaktadır. Bu amaçla, mimarlık, mühendislik ve yapım ile ilgili danışmanlık hizmeti veren kişi ve kurumların kullanımına açık olan bu model, esnek ve kullanımı kolay yapısı sayesinde rahatlıkla uyarlanabilir, güncellenebilir ve ileriki çalışmalara temel oluşturacak şekilde geliştirilebilir.
Historical building extension design, a subset of sustainable development for historical environments, is a complex process as it concerns both a historical and a new building. In Turkey, decisions, and practices for the protection of the historical environment often result in products lacking an aesthetic value, being deceptive in their imitation of the existing historical building, and/or physically and contextually detrimental to the historical building. The decision-making authorities responsible for new constructions in the historical environment in Turkey are the Regional Heritage Conservation Boards (RHCB). For various reasons the project approval process from RHCB, resulting in a product with questionable design quality becomes a difficult and weary process for all stakeholders, especially the architect. Focusing on contemporary extensions to historical buildings, this study presents an assessment model that aims to provide aesthetic, theoretical, and constructional compatibility between a historical building and its new extension. Two main objectives have been determined to achieve the desired assessment model. The first is to define the main criteria for the integration of the historical building and the new extension, and the second is to develop a model so that the optimal material and structural combination is selected for the historical building and extension interface. The criteria and sub-criteria for the integration of a historical building and its new extension were developed through research and literature review. Each criterion was explained in terms of its advantages and disadvantages and the optimum range in conservation and extension design. After defining criteria, the assessment model was constructed using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool. The Super Decision (SD) program, the digital interface of AHP, was used to apply the model to different extension design cases. Thus, the operation of the model was tested and results were obtained. Defining criteria for all aspects of extension design for a historical building, this study focuses on the structural interface between the two buildings. The initial design should match the preliminary limitations of the model. One main limitation is that the historical building and the new extension parts of the combination should separately exhibit the characteristics of a single building. A second limitation is that the initial design should not exceed the plot and height limitations stipulated by the relevant legislation on new architecture in historical environments. Two main results were obtained from this study: the definition of the criteria for integrating historical buildings with their new extension and the assessment model. To define criteria provides a basis for the understanding, discussion and possible standardization of the historical building extension design process. Given the criteria for each extension design case, the model can assess different combinations material and structure and establish a relative assessment point separately for each based on the selected criteria. As a result of the model’s assessment, the optimal solution is chosen among the solution variations. The model’s output can be used to criticize the design, change design decisions, go back and forth through the design procedure for re-assessment, and create new design solutions. The lack of architect’s access to integrated, inter-disciplinary design and the lack of a systematized set of the RHCB principles are among the main reasons for inefficiency in the process. In order to facilitate the historical building extension design process and elevate the design quality above a certain level, effective criteria should be determined in the design and implementation of extensions of historical buildings. This model can be used by firms in projects requiring expertise from various disciplines and therefore suitable for use by architecture, engineering, and consulting companies. Thanks to the user-friendly and flexible nature of this model, it can be easily adapted and improved for future studies. However, the selection of criteria and the creation of different design alternatives are crucial to the effective use of the model. The presence of a team of experts from different disciplines would enhance the discussion and assessment of the model. This study contributes to the literature in an attempt to determine the criteria for historical building extension design with its advantageous/disadvantageous effects on the design. Further investigation and collaboration can make it possible to provide numerical values for construction-related criteria, to contribute improving the regulations and standards in the field. Additionally, the model is an effective tool to improve and facilitate the HCB process by opening a discussion ground that can also be used in formal HCB procedures for professionals and authorities.

4.First Graduates of Village Institutes and Their Schools: Milas-Kapikiri Primary School
Melek Zühre Sözeri Yıldırım, Hüseyin Ökten
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.15921  Pages 384 - 398
Erken Cumhuriyet döneminin ve Köy Enstitüleri’nin kollektif belleğini bugüne taşıyan ilkokul yapıları “taşımalı eğitime” geçişin sonucu olarak boşaltılmıştır. Okulların birçoğu son 20 yıl içinde yıkılma noktasına gelmiştir. Bu okullardan biri 1999-2000 eğitim-öğretim yılında eğitim işlevini kaybeden Kapıkırı İlkokulu’dur. Komşu köylerden Köy Enstitüleri’ne katılan ve eğitim alan Kapıkırı’nın ilk öğretmeninin, Köy Enstitüleri’nin ilk mezunlarından biri olduğu bilinmektedir. Ayrıca, okulun kendine özgü mimarisi ve 1941 yılında sonuçlanan “Köy Okulları Proje Müsabakası” birincilik ödülü ile benzerlikleri Kapıkırı İlkokulu’nun araştırma alanı olarak seçilmesinin temel nedenleridir. Bu çalışmanın savı, köy okullarının, Erken Cumhuriyet döneminin Modernlik Projesi’nin kırsaldaki en önemli göstergeleri olduğudur. Kapıkırı İlkokulu’nun 1940’lı yıllara ait bir “tasarım yarışması” ürünü olma ihtimali, kendisini koruma nesnesine dönüştürecek önemli bir bilgidir. Doğal ve arkeolojik sit alanında bulunması nedeniyle okul; yerleşim yeri, inşaat süreci ve yerleşimin dönüşümü açısından Türkiye’deki koruma politikalarına ilişkin çok önemli bulgular taşımaktadır. Sonuç olarak bu çalışma, 1940’lı yılların sonlarında inşa edilen bir okul üzerinden “kırsalda modern ile temas” ve “modernlik projesi ile koruma paradigması arasındaki gerilimi” okumaya çalışmaktadır. Böylelikle, “köye eğitimin girişi” olarak sembolize edilen bu köy okulu, günümüzdeki koruma fikri açısından arkeolojik sit alanlarındaki yerleşimler için dönüştürücü bir rol oynayabilecektir.
Village Institutes are one of the pioneer accomplishments regarding the ‘Modernity Project’ of Early Republican Period. With the legitimization of Institutes in 1940, students from the villages, after completing -the educational program in the Village Institutes, became primary school teachers. As soon as they returned to their villages, they constructed their own school buildings where they started teaching. However, these village schools, where the first graduates of the Institute taught, were closed down as a result of the abolition of multi-grade classes and the transition to transported education. Today, those Village Schools, reflections of the Republic’s ideology, are physically on the verge of collapse since they have not been utilized for the last 20 years. The fundamental notion of the current study is to highlight the fact that Village Schools, especially the ones built between 1940-1950, are one of the main indicators of the ‘Modernity Project’ of the Early Republic in the rural Anatolia. These structures, besides being the visual reflections of the educational policies of the newly-established Republic, bear the collective memory of the Early Republic and the principles of Village Institutes to the present. Therefore, this study aims to identify these schools before their demolition and to document how these simple school structures strongly acted upon the modernization process. Considering its relation to the Village Institutes, Kapıkırı School in Milas, evacuated in the 1999-2000 school year due to the abolition of the multi-grade classes was selected as the case in the current study. The underlying reason for such a selection is to indicate the fact that Kapıkırı Primary School has been one of the few intact examples where the first graduates of the Institutes taught. At the initial stage, nearly thirty village schools in the Milas district of Muğla were evaluated through settlement decisions and functions and structures were documented by measurements and photographs. In the second stage, structures identified were classified, and especially Gölyaka and Kıyıkışlacık schools, which are located in ancient settlements and have indications of similarity in plans, were compared with Kapıkırı School. In accordance with these stages, a detailed literature review was conducted in Arkitekt-Journal, which happens to be the main source of information in understanding the architectural approach of the period of 1940-1960. In addition, based on the local history, it has been understood that children of villages around the Kapıkırı attended Institutes to become primary school teachers. One of these students started teaching in Kapıkırı after his graduation as the first teacher of the village. He collaborated with the villagers, especially during the construction of the roof and wooden elements, by means of his special training as a ‘constructor’ in the Institute. The findings collected through the detailed architectural examination of Kapıkırı School and comparative readings in Arkitekt-Journal have proved the fact that Kapıkırı School was built in accordance with the first prize of Village Schools Competition Project. Upon research conducted, it was found that this school in a small village was designed by the famous architects Asım Mutlu and Ahsen Yapanar, the First Prize winners in the competition. In addition, literature review and oral history studies about the building process also shows that the school was directly associated with Institutes. The architects Ernst Egli, who travelled through Anatolia examining the various school buildings (1928-1930) and Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, who published a series of typologies of village schools (1938-1940), had also very similar proposals with Kapıkırı School. Asım Mutlu and Ahsen Yapanar completed their architectural education at the Fine Arts Academy and had direct associations with these architects. The research findings on the above-mentioned architects have made it possible to state that Kapıkırı primary school was not only related to the Early Republican ideologies but also European Influences. Consequently, this study which proceeds through the Kapıkırı School attempted to read the experience of the rural areas which were in contact with modernity, and the tension between the modernity project and the conservation paradigm. Based on the results of the current research, Kapıkırı School, located within a natural/archaeological protection site, revealed significant information regarding the preservation policies in Turkey, in terms of the decision of positioning, and transformation of the settlement. However, the main reason for this tension is due to the fact that the Kapıkırı School has been built in accordance with the first prize entry of one Architectural Competition Project pertaining to the 1940s and this feature of the building also makes it an artifact deserving preservation.

5.On Possibilities of Transforming Space Emerging from Theories on Body
Semin Erkenez, Ayşen Ciravoğlu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.34341  Pages 399 - 411
İnsan, akıl merkezli düşünce yapısı nedeniyle çevresinde gerçekleşen bütün olaylara ve oluşturulan yaşamsal kurgulara sistematik işleyen bir neden-sonuç ilişkisi içinde bakmaktadır. Akla yüklenen bu özellik insanın mekânla, doğayla ve birey olarak diğer insanlarla kurduğu ilişkileri, tanımlanmış kalıplar içinde gerçekleştirmesine sebep olmaktadır. İnsanlığın doğayla, farklı cinsiyetteki, kültürdeki ve etnik yapıdaki bireylerle girdiği mücadele hep bu kalıplar içinde gerçekleşmektedir. Dolayısıyla süregiden alışkanlıklardan kurtulmak için kalıpların sorgulanması ve çözümlenmesi gerekliliği söz konusudur. Beden kültürel açıdan etnik ve cinsiyet bağlamında birçok tartışmanın merkezinde yer alır. Bedenin yanında mekân üretilen söylemlerin takibinin yapılabilmesi için önemli bir düzenek olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu nedenle beden üzerinden yapılacak olan araştırma paralel olarak mekân üzerinden de yürütülmüştür. Bu bağlamda sanayi devriminden günümüze bir çözümleme yapılmıştır. Tarihsel süreç insan merkezci, anti insan merkezci ve insan sonrası olarak üç aşamaya ayrılarak değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Bedenin dönemler içindeki kimliği anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Süreç içinde karşımıza çıkan organizma, bedensiz organ, organsız beden ve siborg beden gibi tanımların mekân ile arasındaki bağlantı irdelenmiştir. Bu değerlendirme için kavramlar öbekleşme (assemblage) kuramı üzerinden etkileşime sokulmuştur. Böylece her parçanın diğeriyle bağlantısını reddetmeden, kendi kimliği üzerine düşünülebilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Ayrıca beden ve mekân üzerinden geleceğe ilişkin olasılıklar da değerlendirilmiştir. Bu bağlamda bu çalışmanın, beden ve mekânın konumunun tarihsel arka planını ve bugünkü potansiyellerini anlamada bir araç olmasının ötesinde, mekâna beden üzerinden yeniden bakmanın önünü açması açısından önem taşıdığı düşünülmektedir.
Human, because of mind centered perspective, look from all events which are occurring in the environment and the vital fictions which are being constructed within a systematically operating cause and effect relation. Relations established with the space inhabited as well as with nature and other people as individuals, occur within defined frames and patterns. The struggle of man with nature and individuals who have different genders, cultures and ethnicities takes place within these patterns. However, relations don’t consist of one-way connections. Relations are multi-directional and multi-dimensional. Therefore, these patterns should be pondered upon and analyzed in order to get rid of the ongoing habits. Starting from this perspective, the process of otherness is based on putting one thing on top of the other with dualistic oppositions and claiming superiority upon the other. This structure which is built by domination (hierarchical structure) tends to homogenize every element by defining their characteristics as differences. In doing so, it causes plurality among individuals to be forgotten and individual’s relation with the outer world as well as the relation person has with oneself to be broken. This study desires to rediscover existing diversities. Therefore, it thinks within a system which doesn’t create asymmetrical relations between elements (rather a system which is based on network structure). Body in terms of cultural is located at the heart of many discussions in ethnical and gender-related contexts. Space comes to the fore, along with the body, as an important means in to track generated discourses. Therefore, the present study, conducted along the lines of the body, has also been conducted along the lines of space to construct a parallel discussion. In the study, body and space are defined as an assemblage that are aimed to be analyzed in historical perspective. The spaces of the body, which are marginalized within the hierarchical system, and the spaces of the body that are defined in the meshwork (non-hierarchical) system, have been investigated. Thus, the study reads the space through the body and explores the possibilities of the body transforming the space. Since it is thought that a new process has entered as a result of the evolution of the body and space in the historical process, the study aims to unfold the ‘post-architecture’ process in this context. The inquiry into the body has brought up the necessity of a historical analysis. An analysis from the industrial revolution up until the present times has been conducted in this context. The analysis has been carried out through inquiries into the structures which are thought to be in interaction with the body within the process. The same inquiry lines have been performed on the space as well, and the effects of the changes in the identity of the body on space have been studied. Historical process has been discussed by breaking it into three periods: anthropocentric, non-anthropocentric, and post-human periods. Identity of the body within these periods has been sized up. The study concerns inquiry into the connection between definition of the body such as organism, organ without body, body without organs, cyborg body etc., and space. It tried to track reflections of definitions and theories imposed upon the body throughout the defined process in the plane of space. The study consists of an evaluation of historical narrative built upon body and space. For this evaluation, the perspective and notion of the study are based on the new materialism and, the concepts have been put into interaction through assemblage theory. The aim in doing so was to be able to think upon each element’s own identity without denying its connection to the other. As a result of the historical analysis conducted in this scope, we are on the brink of experiencing the process of embodiment of space. And the design model of the conducted analysis and its possible effects on future studies have been discussed. In this context, this study is significant in opening up a way to reevaluate the space through the body, beyond being merely a means to understand historical background and present potentials of the position of the body and the space.

6.“Active Studio” Experiences in Architectural Design Education
Bengi Yurtsever, Çiğdem Polatoğlu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.57614  Pages 412 - 429
Her şeyin her yerde, kolaylıkla varlık gösterebildiği günümüzde, kendine özgü olan zamanla yok olmaktadır. Bireyin tasarım ve bunun sürecine ilişkin bakış açısını da değiştiren bu durum, sürekli benzer üretimleri arayan, farklı olanı yadırgayan, tek tipleşmeden rahatsız olmayan, özgün fikir geliştiremeyen bir topluluğu da beraberinde getirmektedir. Bu topluluktaki kişilerin yaşadığı ve tasarladığı ortamlar da günün düşünce biçimi ile birlikte mimari yaklaşımını ortaya koymaktadır. Değişimlerin arka planda sürekli değerlendirildiği bu çalışmanın amacı, sorunu mimari tasarımın eğitim boyutunda ele almak; mimari tasarım eğitimine ilişkin deneyimleri paylaşırken, gömülü kalmış sorunları eş zamanlı olarak bu keşfetme sürecinde tartışmaya açmaktır. Soruna ilişkin arayışa, ters yüz bir yaklaşım ile başlanmış; katılımcı etkileşimi ile anlamlandırılan bir çalışma yapılmıştır. Yapılandırılan görüşlerin katmanlaştığı süreçte, çağdaş öğrenme anlayışlarından yararlanılmıştır. Yapılandırmacı gömülü kuram nitel araştırma örüntüsü, bu arayışın iskeletini oluşturmuştur. Günümüz ortamının çelişkili yapısının, özünde “aktif” olabilecek bir potansiyeli taşıdığı görüşünden yola çıkılarak, çalışma sürecinde üretilen “aktif stüdyo” kategorisinin farklı bileşenler ile mimari tasarım stüdyolarında deneyimlenebileceği düşünülmektedir.
In today’s world, where everything is easily and frequently replicated, that which is unique is disappearing. These circumstances change the point of view of the individual regarding design and create a society that seeks and prefers uniformity, devalues what is unusual or different, and does not encourage or develop original, distinctive ideas. The environment is a reflection of the architectural approach and the prevailing thinking. The present study examines this scenario in the context of the educational dimension of architectural design and assesses these issues using a discovery process of constant change. Generation, experience, and meaning given to difference, space, place, atmosphere, and their components were examined to analyze the effect of cognitive differences and the value of originality in relation to the environment. An inverted approach was used, focused on alternative learning environments and participant interaction. To contrast a process with structured, stratified views, contemporary learning approaches were applied as the foundation of this study: a constructivist, embedded, qualitative research formula. The issues were explored from within the architectural design studio experience. An “active studio” concept based on experiences was used, incorporating personalized and constructivist ideas generated using blended learning and an inverted methodology. In this approach, the hypothesis of the study is not a static problem. Instead, it is flexible and organic, renewed in every new environment. The network of relationships among studio members, which reveals the field of experience, generates the initial formulation. The questions and problems identified in the first studio experience are the basis for new hypotheses, and create a different, second studio environment. The active studio experience, because it is dynamic and involves questioning what currently exists, is an environment that animates and inspires individual exploration. It fosters the ability to genuinely be involved in the flow of the moment and, without force, do what the moment requires, rather than simple, directed activity that does not explore beyond the present standard. In order to see the comprehensive, long-lasting experience environment, all three of these studio experiences were evaluated, including consideration of:

- Sharing
- Suggestion development
- Responsibility
- Volunteering
- Communication

These elements were measured after the studio experience according to the analysis of the structure and findings, including participant interaction. The active studio should be seen as an environment that adapts to the present and continues to flow with it, not as a differentiated environment. This could be considered a process of recovery. Given the increasing number of architecture students and the growth of academic departments, blended media provide a valuable addition or alternative. The rigid structure of today’s environment and architectural design studios have the potential to be active and truly creative in essence.

7.Occupant Safety and Risks Related to Building Envelope
Semih Serkan Ustaoğlu, Sevgül Limoncu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.08068  Pages 430 - 440
Hızlı kentleşme, hızlı üretim ve yapılaşma biçimleri, tasarım yöntemlerinin ve zorunlulukların gelişimlerin gerisinde kalması, sosyolojik değişim, ekolojik dönüşümler vb. gibi nedenlerle farklılaşan yapma çevre içerisinde oluşan güvenlik sorunları bireylerin yaşamlarını olumsuz bir biçimde etkilemektedir. Yapılar bu değişimler nedeniyle güvenli bir yaşam ortamı sunmaktan uzaklaşmaktadır. Özellikle yapının iç yaşantısı ile yakın çevresi arasında bir sınır ve eşik görevi yapan yapı kabuğu kullanıcı güvenliğinin sağlanmasında önemli bir yapı elemanıdır. Ancak Türkiye’de mimari tasarımda yaygın olarak kullanılan geleneksel tasarım yöntemi bu güvenlik sorunlarının çözümü için yetersiz kalmaktadır. Bu sorunların çözümlenebilmesi için risk analizli tasarım yönteminin kullanımının benimsenmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; yapı ve yapı kabuğunda oluşması olası risklerin tanımlanması, analiz edilmesi, önceliklendirilmesi sistemini temel alan risk analizli tasarım yöntemi konusunda tasarımcılara bilgi ve bilinç kazandırmaktır. Araştırmada, yapı kabuğuna ilişkin riskler kapsamlı bir literatür, olay ve istatistiksel araştırma sonucunda belirlenmiş, sınıflandırılmış ve tanımlanmıştır. Tanımlanmış olan risklerin ortadan kaldırılması ya da çözümlenmesi için risk analizli tasarım yöntemi önerisi geliştirilmiştir. Bu yöntemin Türkiye’de güvenli yapı ve yapı kabuğu tasarlama konusunda rehberlik edeceği varsayılmaktadır.
The need for shelter in humans has emerged to protect themselves from adverse environmental conditions and to meet l their physiological needs in a safe and healthy living area. However, in today’s spatial changes and transformations, a wide range of risk-based problems of the occupants are either ignored / pushed in to the background in the design processes, or people are afraid of such problems. In built environments, designed by ignoring these risks, people constantly feel threatened and endangered. People’s lives are hampered by the problems posed by these risks that must be prevented before they occur. However, in Turkey, there exists no architectural design procedure that considers the risks in building production. This is mainly because occupants and builders prioritize economic and social concerns rather than health and safety issues. Arising from the need to live in a safe environment, buildings have turned into an element that negatively affects the need of people due to the changes in time. Building envelopes play an important role in providing a safe environment to protect buildings from external safety issues, especially as a boundary between indoor and outdoor environments. However, as the changes over time has been reflected in the building envelope, there have been significant increases in the downside of the occupant safety-building envelope relationship. The study aims to classify safety risks of the building envelope according to incidents faced by occupants, to define circumstances to be considered in design processes and, to contribute to the design process with the proposal of a risk analysis method. The study is limited to the risks of the building and the nearby surroundings, which adversely affect the occupant safety associated with the building envelope. Risks for occupants arising from the building envelope, problems encountered, and solutions to prevent these before they occur are discussed. Risks associated with building envelopes were identified, classified, and defined through extensive literature, incident and statistical research. A risk analysis design method proposal was developed and linked with the building envelope to eliminate or resolve identified risks. Safety-related rules in architectural design are usually defined through codes and standards. However, there are different risks beyond the minimum situations likely to be encountered by occupants. Their safety levels cannot be determined by strict criteria. Each design has its own conditions; acceptable risk levels should be defined by consensus among occupants and designers. A design process, that ignores occupant safety issues, may result in injuries, damage to internal organs and skeletal system, cracks and fractures, burning, scalding, poisoning, and death. Occupants face the same life threats as building envelopes are built with similar design negligence. As a result, occupants’ lives are blocked or ended. Therefore, such negative issues should be addressed as a design problem in the design process and resolved in advance. To produce solutions, building envelope, occupant, function and design risks should be identified. In the study, the common conditions of these risks were identified and examined and, consequently, physical, sociological, psychological risks based on the occupants and the problems that may occur due to the reasons of the related risks were explained in relation to the function. After the identification process, the necessary design method proposal was developed to prevent these problems in the design phase. In Turkey, design method based on risk analysis rather than the traditional approach in ensuring occupant safety should be used. Thus, a healthier and more controlled design process will be implemented and as a result, a system that prioritizes occupant safety will be established. Resolving and detailing conditions that pose a threat to occupant in the building envelope before they occur will reduce the obligations and errors in the production process, and will reduce vital safety issues even if they cannot be completely eliminated during use. This change is considered to have a positive effect on building and envelope design in Turkey, which currently carries multiple potential risks. The study is significant in defining risks arising from the building and its nearby surroundings on the basis of building envelope, revealing the adverse effects of the identified risks on the occupant, and it is thought that it will contribute to safe building design studies in the future with the proposed design method involving risk analysis which is suitable for conditions in Turkey, help to resolve risks in the design process before they occur. In addition, it is thought that the study will raise the safety awareness of occupant and designers in buildings and the nearby surrounding area.

8.Comparative Assessment of Architects and Manufacturers Behaviors for Obtaining and Presenting Environmental Information of Building Products in Turkey
Nurşah Serter, Gökçe Tuna Taygun
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.70370  Pages 441 - 455
Yapı sektörü dolayısıyla yapı ürünleri dünyanın sonlu kaynaklarını tüketmekte, yaşam döngüleri boyunca çevreye etki etmektedir. Yapı ürünü kaynaklı çevre sorunlarının çözümünde üreticilerin, ürünlerinin çevreye olan etkisini beyan etmesi, ürün kararı veren mimarların da çevreye en az etkisi olan yapı ürününü seçme sorumluluğunu üstlenmesi beklenmektedir. Ürün kararı verecek kişilerin doğru ürün kararı vermesine yardımcı olacak, üreticilerin de ürünlerinin çevresel bilgilerini paylaşabileceği, çevresel hassasiyete sahip bir ürün bilgi sistemine gereksinim duyulmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı; yapı ürünü karar verme sürecinde tarafların bilgi edinme ve sunma eğilimlerini irdelemek ve bu doğrultuda “Yapı Ürünlerine Yönelik Çevresel Bilgi Sistemi” tasarımına veri oluşturmaktır. Çalışmada; yapı ürünü kararı verme sürecinde mimarların ve yapı ürünü üreticilerinin odaklandığı/önem verdiği ürünlerin çevresel özellikleri/bilgileri bağlamında kapsamlı bir “inceleme” yapılmış ve Türk inşaat sektöründe çalışan bu iki paydaşın eğilimleri değerlendirilmiştir. Öncelikle karar verme sürecinde ürünlerin çevresel özellikleri ve bilgilerinin edinilme/sunulma biçimleri, karar ölçütlerine yönelik seçenekler belirlenmiştir. Veriler, mimarlar ve yapı ürünü üreticilerine hazırlanan iki ayrı anket çalışması aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. İki ayrı örneklem bağımsız olarak seçilmiş ve aynı sorular karşısındaki tutumları incelenmiştir. Ayrıca çalışmada veri analizi için iki grup arasındaki ortalamaların farkını gösteren t-testi kullanılmıştır. Veri analizi ve bulguların değerlendirilmesi sonucunda iki paydaşın, yapı ürünlerinin çevresel özellikleri ve bilgilerini edinme/sunma biçimi, önem sıralaması ve diğer çevresel karar ve karşılaştırmalara yönelik eğilim ve istekleri belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca yapı ürünlerine yönelik çevresel bilgi sistemi oluşturmak için çevre dostu ürün karar ölçütlerine yönelik öneriler ve internet tabanlı bir “Yapı Ürünlerine Yönelik Çevresel Bilgi Sistemi” oluşturulması ve özellikleri doğrultusunda öneriler de sunulmuştur. Bu bağlamda doğru ürün kararı ile yapı ve yapı ürünü kaynaklı çevresel sorunların azalacağı düşünülmektedir.
The construction sector, and therefore also the vast majority of building products, consume finite resources and affect the environment throughout their life cycle. As part of the effort to address environmental problems that originate from building products, manufacturers are now expected to declare the environmental impact of their products and architects who make product decisions should take the responsibility of choosing those products that have the least impact on the environment. Preliminary studies of a system to collect information about building products have been ongoing in Turkey since the early 2000s. However, these studies include mostly technical information and cost-oriented details. There is still a need for an information system that provides information about the environmental impact of these products to help guide responsible decision-making. The objective of this study was to examine the methods used to choose building materials and compare the environmental characteristics of the products using a comprehensive examination and prepared surveys. The results will provide data for the design of the Environmental Information System for Building Products (EISBP), a single source of detailed information about these products. The environmental impact characteristics of the materials that architects and building product manufacturers valued, and the preference and activity trends of these two stakeholders of the Turkish construction industry were evaluated using surveys of independently selected respondents to determine the environmental features of the products, the ways in which that information was obtained and presented, and the product decision criteria. One survey was sent by e-mail to architects who have an office registered with the Chamber of Architects in the Marmara Region. A second survey was conducted in face-to-face interviews with construction product representatives at a building and construction trade show. The responses of the two samples to the same questions were examined. A t-test was used to analyze the study data. The preferences and priorities of the two stakeholder groups with regard to the environmental characteristics of building products, the importance given to that information, and other environmental decisions and comparisons were analyzed and evaluated. The decision-makers surveyed were architects registered with the Chamber of Architects in the Marmara Region and manufacturers of paint, joinery, wall, flooring and roofing materials participating in a building fair. The results revealed that both the representatives of the manufacturers and the architects primarily relied on manufacturer websites as sources of information for product decisions and promotion. Architects next turned to online catalogs where they can view and compare products. The manufacturers’ representatives indicated that they tended to use printed brochures as a secondary source of product promotion. It is noteworthy that the most important feature for architects was a product guarantee. Naturally, both groups cared most about the performance characteristics of a product. When the responses of the two groups regarding the decision criteria for environmentally friendly building products were examined, it was observed that information about the life cycle of the products was considered important. It would appear that the environmental awareness of both groups of stakeholders working in the Turkish construction sector has increased in recent years. The demand for environmental information about building products reinforces the necessity for the EISBP. The study also provides suggestions for environmentally friendly product decision criteria to be used in the design of the EISBP as well as suggestions for a web-based EISBP interface. Easily accessible information can assist with better product decision-making, which will help to decrease environmental problems originating from construction and building products.using surveys of independently selected respondents to determine the environmental features of the products, the ways in which that information was obtained and presented, and the product decision criteria. One survey was sent by e-mail to architects who have an office registered with the Chamber of Architects in the Marmara Region. A second survey was conducted in face-to-face interviews with construction product representatives at a building and construction trade show. The responses of the two samples to the same questions were examined. A t-test was used to analyze the study data. The preferences and priorities of the two stakeholder groups with regard to the environmental characteristics of building products, the importance given to that information, and other environmental decisions and comparisons were analyzed and evaluated. The decision-makers surveyed were architects registered with the Chamber of Architects in the Marmara Region and manufacturers of paint, joinery, wall, flooring and roofing materials participating in a building fair. The results revealed that both the representatives of the manufacturers and the architects primarily relied on manufacturer websites as sources of information for product decisions and promotion. Architects next turned to online catalogs where they can view and compare products. The manufacturers’ representatives indicated that they tended to use printed brochures as a secondary source of product promotion. It is noteworthy that the most important feature for architects was a product guarantee. Naturally, both groups cared most about the performance characteristics of a product. When the responses of the two groups regarding the decision criteria for environmentally friendly building products were examined, it was observed that information about the life cycle of the products was considered important. It would appear that the environmental awareness of both groups of stakeholders working in the Turkish construction sector has increased in recent years. The demand for environmental information about building products reinforces the necessity for the EISBP. The study also provides suggestions for environmentally friendly product decision criteria to be used in the design of the EISBP as well as suggestions for a web-based EISBP interface. Easily accessible information can assist with better product decision-making, which will help to decrease environmental problems originating from construction and building products.

9.A Review of Colin Rowe’s Contextualism Through Twenty-first Century Cities
Ebru Bingol
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.83436  Pages 456 - 466
Mimarlık kuramında bağlama dair tartışmalar, İkinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında bombalanmış Avrupa kentlerinin yeniden yapılanması aşamasında, modern ve tarihi dokunun nasıl entegre edileceği tartışmaları içerisinde kent ile ilişkilendirilir. Tam da bu dönemde, ideolojik altyapısını Townscape’in çoğulcu demokrasi yaklaşımından, Karl Popper’ın indirgemeci bilim ve toplum eleştirisinden ve Lionel Trilling’in çelişki ve toplumsal diyalektik yaklaşımından, analiz yöntemlerini Rudolf Wittkower’in tarihsel analizlerinden ve Heinrich Wölfflin’in biçimsel karşılaştırmalı analizlerinden aktaran, kompozisyonel oluşumunda Gestalt psikolojisi ve Henry-Russell Hitchcock’in kübist resimlerinden esinlenen Colin Rowe, “bağlamsalcılık” yaklaşımıyla mimarlık kuramı içerisinde “bağlam” kavramına spesifik bir anlam kazandırır. Rowe, kentsel bağlamı okumak için geleneksel ve modern kent dokularını figür zemin planları aracılığıyla analiz eder ve süreklilik ve yenilik arasında arabulucu bir pozisyon benimser. 1980’li yıllarla birlikte değişen çağdaş kentin çok katmanlı, parçalı, çok ölçekli yapısı ve postyapısalcılığın mimarlık kuramı üzerindeki görünür etkileriyle birlikte Rowe’un bağlamsalcılığı zengin arka planını yitirmeye başlar ve bağlamsalcılığın güçlü formel araçları, günümüz kentsel tasarım projelerinde basit kitle-boşluk analizlerine indirgenir. Bu yazının amacı, XXI. yüzyıl kentinde Rowe’un kapsamlı bağlam anlayışının, dağılmasının arkasında yatan sebepleri tarihsel bir perspektifte ele alırken bağlam kavramının içeriğinin değişiminin, mimarlık ve kent ilişkisinin evrimiyle paralellik gösterdiğini ortaya koymaktır. Bu yazı, Rowe’un bütüncül bağlamını tamamen reddetmek yerine, günümüzde kent-mimari proje arasındaki etkileşimi dikkate alındığında, gelecekte sunabileceği potansiyellere ışık tutmaktadır.
The debate on context in architectural theory emerged as a response to how to integrate modern and historical patterns in the reconstruction of European cities bombed during World War II. Colin Rowe introduced a specific concept of “contextualism” and analyzed modern and traditional urban patterns by using figure-ground maps and embraced a position of mediation between continuity and regeneration. With Rowe, context received a specific meaning with an ideological foundation that included inspiration from the Townscape vision of pluralist democracy, Karl Popper’s criticism of reductionist science and society and Lionel Trilling’s commentary on contradiction and social dialectics, the compositional form of Gestalt psychology and the cubist influence of Henry-Russell Hitchcock, the historical analysis of Rudolf Wittkower and the formal comparisonanalysis of Heinrich Wölfflin. The integrity and rich conceptual background of Rowe’s contextualism was weakened by the rise of the multilayered, fragmented, multiscale structure of the contemporary city in the 1980s and the visible effects of poststructuralism on architectural theory. The powerful formal tools of contextualism have largely been reduced to simple figure-ground analysis in today’s urban design projects. This paper explores how the erosion of the conceptual content of Rowe’s contextualism paralleled the evolution of architectural discourse that revolved around the relationship between architecture and the city. A historical perspective is used to examine possible causes for the erosion of Rowe’s contextualism in the changing relationships, scale, and texture of the contemporary city. In the 21st century, economic functions and processes became more global, the relationships of the city and/or parts of the city were diversified in multiple scales, mobility and fluidity had a larger part in the character of urban life, autonomous city segments had multiple contexts, and the distinctions between figure and ground, mass and void, land and building were diversified by hybrid typologies. The structure of the 21st century city is largely characterized by networks and relationships, and thus, a reading of the city requires a multiscale and multilayered perspective. Rowe’s comprehensive contextualism fell out of favor as the 21st century city changed structurally since the context had become a multi-layered structure. This article is a critical literature review and uses an embedded theory research model. Rowe’s contextualism is examined using the literature and historical texts. A comparative method was applied to examine 21st century cities and American cities of Rowe’s time to analyze why Rowe’s total context lost its strength. This study concludes that the expression and form of cities is linked to the context of their own period. However, past configurations provide information to understand the current city since the contemporary city includes layers of history and conditions. Rowe’s comprehensive contextualism fell out of favor as the 21st century city changed structurally, yet the potential of contextualism for the future of the city, its architecture and architectural design is accessible and the holistic understanding of context need not be rejected. The fragmented, multilayered, multiscale urban conditions of the 21st century city sometimes appear in today’s context reading in the form of fragmented and unconnected analyses. Rowe’s contextualism reminds us of the need to understand what we presently refer to as context with a strong conceptual and theoretical background. Reading the dynamics of today’s contemporary city through a rich framework (such as Rowe’s contextualism) constitutes consistency, not weakness or totalitarianism. Rowe’s contextualism provides a multidimensional and holistic approach to a coherent reading of context in the social, political, economic, historical and physical domains while recognizing the multiple contexts within the city of the 21st century and its parts and taking into account the networks of relationships of the city’s context on regional and global scales. It reveals that the necessity of a hybrid reading is useful. Each scale includes different spatial relationships, meanings, and contexts. Rowe’s analysis, among other tools, offers possibilities to read the complex, multidimensional texture, and morphology of the contemporary city and can be applied to different sets of knowledge and reading on a global, regional, and local scale.

10.A Byzantine Structure from the Thracian Hinterland of Istanbul: Haramidere Cistern
Mustafa Çağhan Keskin, Kerim Altuğ
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.45712  Pages 467 - 480
Bu yazıda, İstanbul Haramidere civarında, E5 otoyolu kenarında bulunan bir yapı tanıtılmak istenmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı; yapının işlevine ilişkin çeşitli hipotezleri tartışmak ve özgün işlevine işaret eden mimari verileri irdelemektir. Ölçüleri 22 x 10 metre olan yapı, Via Egnatia güzergahında bulunmaktadır ve hakkında daha önce yayınlanmış bir monografi yoktur. Yapı hakkında görüş bildiren çeşitli bilimsel raporlarda, yapının Aretas adlı bir Bizans Sarayı olduğu öne sürülmüş, bu görüşe katılmayan raporlarda ise yapının ana ticaret yolu üzerinde bulunan bir menzil, diğer bir deyişle bir Osmanlı kervansarayı olduğu vurgulanmıştır. Taş-tuğla almaşık duvar örgülü, üst örtüsü ortadan kalkmış olan yapının duvarlarını içten destekleyen payandaları, pahlı köşeleri, iç yüzeylerinin tamamında kalın bir yalıtıcı sıva tabakasının varlığı ve yakınında ortaya çıkartılan tonozlu su kanalları, kısmen de olsa toprağa gömülü bu yeraltı yapısının kendine ait bir isale hattı bulunan, bir zamanlar ilintili bulunduğu yapılar ya da yakın çevresine su sağlayan bir kapalı sarnıç olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Örtü sistemi her ne kadar günümüze ulaşmamış olsa da mevcut deliller beş tekil taşıyıcılı iki sahınlı bir yapıya işaret eder. Alanda gerçekleştirilen kazılar sırasında ise sarnıcın taşıyıcılarına ait olduğu düşünülen yalnızca bir adet mermer sütun parçası tespit edilmiştir. Yapının mimari özellikleri Konstantinopolis’teki tipik Geç Bizans dönemi yapılarıyla benzerlik göstermektedir.
No monograph has been published on the ruins of a 22x10 meters-size Byzantine structure, located along the current E5 Highway in the vicinity of Haramidere region on the route of ancient “Via Egnatia”. In some scientific reports, it was suggested that the building could be ruins of a Byzantine palace called Aretas as understood from literary sources, while in some others it was argued that the building was an Ottoman menzil, a caravanserai, on the old trade route. However, a re-examination of the available evidence allows for some tentative remarks to be made on the original function of this structure. These constitute the main subject of this article, including the discussion on the necessity of defining the building as a water reservoir. From the fifth and sixth centuries onwards, it is observed that many cisterns usually consisting of two or four rows of columns were built in İstanbul. These structures show similar characteristics in the terms of their construction techniques, commonly representing square or rectangular ground plans. The interiors of the cisterns were divided into naves and the vaulting of the cisterns were supported by rows of columns or in few examples by piers. In these cisterns, a traditional system was used consisting of monolithic columns with arches connecting them with each other and with the walls. The columns were usually topped by spolia capitals showing varying degrees of physical damage. Brick arches bridged the gap between columns and each of the square bays thus formed were canopied by brick vaults or in some examples by domes. It is noteworthy that the vaults were usually built without any wooden framework. Some vaults have openings to draw water from the cistern. The walls are plastered at the height of the spring of vaults by thick layer of waterproof hydraulic mortar, an indicator of maximum storage level. In some examples remnants of a staircase were attached to the wall as an original feature. To increase resistance to the water pressure, the corners between adjacent walls typically contain chamfered or curved reinforcement. Spring water was conveyed by the vaulted aqueduct channels that utilized different elevations to ensure distribution through the city. There were reservoirs and water distribution chambers (castella divisorum) to distribute the water across the city through inverted siphons to cross valleys. The water was delivered to public or private buildings through marble, terracotta or lead pipes. Limited information can be found in the literary sources regarding water distribution and supply for several public and private buildings. In contrast, surviving remains of barrel-vaulted channels and pipelines sometimes appear during the rescue excavations for construction activities. Some archaeological evidence confirms that the water channels were distributing the water within the city from main conduits. Especially during the middle and late Byzantine periods, along with the decline of the water supply system of the city, it seems that numerous cisterns were built in the monasteries and also various substructures were transformed into cisterns. In this respect, cisterns found in almost all of the churches in the Historical Peninsula of İstanbul were either originally built as such or were otherwise converted from underground chambers. Returning to the structural remain at Haramidere, the construction techniques including alternating courses of brick and stone, buttressed interior walls and angled corners, presence of the thick layer of hydraulic plaster on the interior walls, and vaulted water-supply channels unearthed around the site indicate that this partial subterranean structure was a covered cistern that once provided water to the related buildings of a complex or to a site nearby. Although the vaulting of the building has not survived, evidence suggests that the vaulting of the cistern was supported by single row of five columns. Only one fragment of a marble column remained from the cistern was discovered on site during previous excavations. The architectural features of the structure share similarities with the typical late Byzantine period buildings in the capital of Eastern Roman Empire. This paper aims to discuss various hypotheses regarding the identity of the building and to document the architectural features that demonstrate its original function.

11.Regulation of International Construction Contracting Works: Contradictions Between Transnational and National Frameworks
Elvan Gülöksüz
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.19794  Pages 481 - 489
Bu yazıda, büyük altyapı ve emlak projelerini içeren uluslararası inşaat müteahhitliği işlerinin regülasyonu incelenmektedir. İncelemenin odağını ulusötesi ile ulusal regülasyon arasındaki ilişki oluşturmaktadır. İncelemenin temelinde farklı regülasyon rejimlerinin farklı sermaye kesimlerinin çıkarlarını temsil ettiği ve bu rejimlerin çoğul talepleri karşılamaya çalışan ulusal devletler tarafından biçimlendirildiği düşüncesi yatmaktadır. Bu şekilde, regülasyon rejimlerine, sermaye kesimleri arasındaki çelişkilerin müzakere edildiği bir alan olarak bakılmaktadır. İlk olarak, ulusal devlet ve sermaye kesimlerinin ulusötesi regülasyonu hem ulusal hem de ulusötesi ölçekte müzakere ettikleri ileri sürülmektedir. Bu argüman Dünya Ticaret Örgütünün Gözden Geçirilmiş Kamu İhale Anlaşması, Dünya Bankasının Yeni İhale Çerçevesi, Uluslararası Müşavir Mühendisler Federasyonunun Sözleşme Formları ve Türkiye Kamu İhale Yasasının incelenmesine dayanmaktadır. İkinci olarak, uluslararası inşaat müteahhitliği piyasalarına ağırlıklı olarak XXI. yüzyılda giren yeni devlet-sermaye kurulumlarının ulusötesi regülasyon rejimlerine katılmaması sonucu ulusötesi regülasyonun bütünleşme sürecinin sekteye uğradığı ileri sürülmektedir. Araştırma, ulusötesi ve ulusal regülasyon metinleri, hükümetler arası kuruluşların ve Avrupalı sektör birliklerinin beyan ve raporları ile inşaat, hukuk firmaları yöneticileri ve hükümetler arası kuruluşların uzmanları ile yapılan mülakatların analizine dayanmaktadır.
This paper analyzes the regulation of international construction contracting works involving major infrastructure and real estate projects. The focus of the study is the relationship between transnational and national regulation. The basis of the analysis is the notion that different regulatory regimes represent the interests of different segments of capital and that these regimes are shaped by national states trying to meet the multiple demands. In this way, regulatory regimes are viewed as an area where contradictions between segments of capital are negotiated. First, it is argued that the national state and capital segments negotiate transnational regulation both on a national and transnational scale. This argument is based on the examination of the World Trade Organization’s Revised Agreement on Government Procurement, the World Bank’s New Procurement Framework, the contract forms of the International Federation of Consulting Engineers, and the Public Procurement Law of Turkey. Secondly, it is argued that the integration process of transnational regulation was interrupted as a result of the reluctance of the new state-capital configurations introduced in the twenty-first century to join the transnational regulation regimes. The research is based on analysis of transnational and national regulatory texts, statements and reports from intergovernmental organizations and European industry associations, and interviews with executives of construction, law firms and experts from intergovernmental organizations.

12.A Conceptual Approach to Determine Optimum Pedestrian Comfort Route to Access Urban Public Spaces
Müge Ünal Çilek
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2020.16023  Pages 490 - 507
Yürüme, kentsel ulaşımın en eski şekillerinden birisidir. Kentsel alanlarda tüm bireylerin kullanabileceği güvenli, bağlantılı, iyi tasarlanmış konforlu yaya güzergâhlarının varlığı kentsel yaşam kalitesini artırmakta, kamusal alanlardan eşit düzeyde faydalanma olanağı sağlamaktadır. Son yıllarda erişilebilirlikle ilgili çalışmalar Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemlerindeki (CBS) gelişmelerle birlikte hız kazanmıştır. Fakat gelişmekte olan ülkelerle ilgili yapılmış çalışma sayısı oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada, Adana’da semt parkı erişim düzeyinde yer alan yaya güzergâhlarının konfor düzeylerinin fiziksel ve iklimsel koşullar doğrultusunda belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu çalışmanın yaya öncelikli ulaşım planlarının oluşturulmasında karar vericilere yol gösterici olması beklenmektedir. Çalışma alanı, Adana’nın en yoğun kullanılan parklarından birisi olan Hayal Park’da yaya erişiminin sağlandığı 15 dakikalık (800 metre) yürüme mesafesinde yer alan bölgeden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın yöntemi dört temel aşamadan oluşmaktadır. Birinci aşamada çalışmada kullanılan değerlendirme ölçütleri literatür taraması aracılığıyla belirlenmiş ve erişilebilirlik, güvenlik ve konfor olmak üzere üç ana faktör altında toplanmıştır. İkinci aşamada yaya güzergâhlarının konfor düzeyleri belirlenen 15 farklı kriter bazında alanda yapılan gözlem çalışmalarıyla değerlendirilmiştir. Üçüncü aşamada CBS tabanlı çok kriterli analizler aracılığıyla yaya güzergâhı konforları değerlendirilmiştir ve belirlenen her bir kriter katman olarak tanımlanmıştır. Son aşamada ise güvenilir, uygun ve uygulanabilir somut verilerle planlama stratejilerine yansıtılabilecek önerilerin geliştirilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Sonuç olarak bu çalışmada, konut dokusu içinde kalan sokaklardaki yaya yollarının genel olarak orta düzeyde uygun olduğu, kaldırım üzerinde fiziksel açıdan yaya ulaşımını engelleyecek pek çok fiziksel unsurun (aydınlatma direği, elektrik panoları, çöp kutuları, bitki çukurları, kaldırımın park yeri olarak kullanılması vb.) yer aldığı, bulvarlar ve ana yol kenarlarında yer alan yaya güzergâhlarının genişlik, donatı, estetik ve konfor açısından daha uygun olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.
Walking has become one of the important transportation modes together with the increasing importance of sustainability in urban life, thereby, necessitating the design of and planning for safe, accessible, and well-connected pedestrian routes in developing cities. Sidewalks, which are urban furniture, provide pedestrian access in urban transportation; however, insufficient sidewalks in terms of physical characteristics including width, slope, aspect, material, lighting, security, etc. prevent the users ofdifferent ages, genders, and abilities, equally enjoying from public spaces. The cultural and climatic characteristics of the pedestrian route (pedestrian route aspect, azimuth angle, the prevailing wind, shading etc.) should also be considered in the design and planning process. Otherwise, pedestrian routes cannot provide comfortable and preferable routes for individuals. This study aims to determine comfortable pedestrian routes in terms of environmental and climatic features. The study method comprises of the following four steps: (1) The criteria used for designing the comfortable pedestrian routes for the individuals with different abilities, ages, and genders were determined by the review of national and international literature published in the last twenty years and emerging fifteen criteria subsumed under five factors (circulation and accessibility, physical characteristics, security, vegetation, and climatic features) were used to evaluate pedestrian route comfort. (2) The pedestrian routes’ suitability has been determined through the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based multi-criteria analysis method (MCA). This method has helped to integrate multiple criteria in the decision making process. In the CBS analysis, the data were standardized, the characteristics of pedestrian routes were determined by survey studies and their suitability was ranked between 0 (least suitable) - 3 (most suitable) according to the determined criteria and the data layers were overlapped before the classification of comfortable pedestrian routes as five conformity groups, including the lowest, low, medium, high, and the highest suitable. (3) Pedestrian routes have been mapped according to their suitability in terms of environmental and climatic characteristics. (4) Plans, policies, and strategies were developed to guide decision-makers to create comfortable routes. The rapidly developing and urbanizing city of Adana, whose streets and avenues are essential for the public, was selected as the study area to determine the existing pedestrian routes suitability. However, this area was limited due to the comprehensive nature of the study method. The routes within 15 minutes walking distance, which equal to 800 meters, of Hayal Park, a well equipped and big size district park located at the point where many neighborhood boundaries intersect, were selected to evaluate routes’ suitability. The study results show that there are similar characteristics in all suitability classes. The surface materials are the same as concrete pavements and suitable for night use on all routes; however, the slope varies between 0-6 % to 6-12%, and the aspect ratio negatively affects the pedestrian comfort. The common vegetation types are wide-crowned tree species in the refuges, the combination of bushes and trees in the building garden adjacent to the road, and narrow and wide-crowned trees on the sidewalk. There is no pavement or sidewalk for pedestrians in the lowest conformity class routes and pedestrians use the vehicle road. In the routes where the sidewalk is located, the sidewalks are on one side of the vehicle road or directly adjacent to the building on both sides and are very narrow (1 meter). Urban furniture on the sidewalks is positioned to prevent pedestrian access. The sidewalks adjacent to the building’s side and front gardens are 5 meters wide in the low suitable class. These routes are unsuitable for pedestrians because sidewalks are used as car parking areas. In the study area, the sidewalks are generally identified as medium suitability classes. Unlike the low suitability class, there are 1.5-2 m wide sidewalks reserved for pedestrians after the parking areas located in the front garden distances of some buildings, and vegetation is conveniently positioned to provide shade to pedestrians. However, some urban furniture such as lighting elements, waste bins, electrical panels, etc. prevent pedestrian transition. The highest conformity routes are located on the adjacent to main streets where the pedestrian circulation is high due to the commercial use of the building ground floor, large width sidewalks, and conveniently located plant and urban furniture. Based on the results of the study, the following suggestions are offered o increase the conformity of both existed and planned pedestrian routes: (1) The sidewalk width is one of the difficult criteria to change in the developed urban area; therefore, sidewalk width should be designed and planned according to the intensity of future use. (2) Urban furniture should be in an appropriate position and height on both narrow and wide-width pavements. (3) An urban pedestrian access system in which current practices are integrated should be developed to ensure regular maintenance of sidewalks and to eliminate problems in the shortest time possible. Thus, both physically and climatically comfortable pedestrian routes can be created by developing a GIS-based access system by which data flow is provided by public institutions. In this study, the evaluation criteria for designing the comfortable pedestrian routes were determined by the review of national and international literature published in the last 20 years. The methodology of the study is of practical value since it ucan be applied to the identification of pedestrian comfort route in different urban areas. Moreover, this study may serve as a guide for decision-makers in future urban design and planning. with the concrete data obtained by the integration of GIS.



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