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A Conceptual Approach to Determine Optimum Pedestrian Comfort Route to Access Urban Public Spaces [Megaron]
Megaron. 2020; 15(3): 490-507 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2020.16023  

A Conceptual Approach to Determine Optimum Pedestrian Comfort Route to Access Urban Public Spaces

Müge Ünal Çilek
Cukurova University Faculty of Architecture, Landscape Architecture Department, Adana, Turkey

Walking has become one of the important transportation modes together with the increasing importance of sustainability in urban life, thereby, necessitating the design of and planning for safe, accessible, and well-connected pedestrian routes in developing cities. Sidewalks, which are urban furniture, provide pedestrian access in urban transportation; however, insufficient sidewalks in terms of physical characteristics including width, slope, aspect, material, lighting, security, etc. prevent the users ofdifferent ages, genders, and abilities, equally enjoying from public spaces. The cultural and climatic characteristics of the pedestrian route (pedestrian route aspect, azimuth angle, the prevailing wind, shading etc.) should also be considered in the design and planning process. Otherwise, pedestrian routes cannot provide comfortable and preferable routes for individuals. This study aims to determine comfortable pedestrian routes in terms of environmental and climatic features. The study method comprises of the following four steps: (1) The criteria used for designing the comfortable pedestrian routes for the individuals with different abilities, ages, and genders were determined by the review of national and international literature published in the last twenty years and emerging fifteen criteria subsumed under five factors (circulation and accessibility, physical characteristics, security, vegetation, and climatic features) were used to evaluate pedestrian route comfort. (2) The pedestrian routes’ suitability has been determined through the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based multi-criteria analysis method (MCA). This method has helped to integrate multiple criteria in the decision making process. In the CBS analysis, the data were standardized, the characteristics of pedestrian routes were determined by survey studies and their suitability was ranked between 0 (least suitable) - 3 (most suitable) according to the determined criteria and the data layers were overlapped before the classification of comfortable pedestrian routes as five conformity groups, including the lowest, low, medium, high, and the highest suitable. (3) Pedestrian routes have been mapped according to their suitability in terms of environmental and climatic characteristics. (4) Plans, policies, and strategies were developed to guide decision-makers to create comfortable routes. The rapidly developing and urbanizing city of Adana, whose streets and avenues are essential for the public, was selected as the study area to determine the existing pedestrian routes suitability. However, this area was limited due to the comprehensive nature of the study method. The routes within 15 minutes walking distance, which equal to 800 meters, of Hayal Park, a well equipped and big size district park located at the point where many neighborhood boundaries intersect, were selected to evaluate routes’ suitability. The study results show that there are similar characteristics in all suitability classes. The surface materials are the same as concrete pavements and suitable for night use on all routes; however, the slope varies between 0-6 % to 6-12%, and the aspect ratio negatively affects the pedestrian comfort. The common vegetation types are wide-crowned tree species in the refuges, the combination of bushes and trees in the building garden adjacent to the road, and narrow and wide-crowned trees on the sidewalk. There is no pavement or sidewalk for pedestrians in the lowest conformity class routes and pedestrians use the vehicle road. In the routes where the sidewalk is located, the sidewalks are on one side of the vehicle road or directly adjacent to the building on both sides and are very narrow (1 meter). Urban furniture on the sidewalks is positioned to prevent pedestrian access. The sidewalks adjacent to the building’s side and front gardens are 5 meters wide in the low suitable class. These routes are unsuitable for pedestrians because sidewalks are used as car parking areas. In the study area, the sidewalks are generally identified as medium suitability classes. Unlike the low suitability class, there are 1.5-2 m wide sidewalks reserved for pedestrians after the parking areas located in the front garden distances of some buildings, and vegetation is conveniently positioned to provide shade to pedestrians. However, some urban furniture such as lighting elements, waste bins, electrical panels, etc. prevent pedestrian transition. The highest conformity routes are located on the adjacent to main streets where the pedestrian circulation is high due to the commercial use of the building ground floor, large width sidewalks, and conveniently located plant and urban furniture. Based on the results of the study, the following suggestions are offered o increase the conformity of both existed and planned pedestrian routes: (1) The sidewalk width is one of the difficult criteria to change in the developed urban area; therefore, sidewalk width should be designed and planned according to the intensity of future use. (2) Urban furniture should be in an appropriate position and height on both narrow and wide-width pavements. (3) An urban pedestrian access system in which current practices are integrated should be developed to ensure regular maintenance of sidewalks and to eliminate problems in the shortest time possible. Thus, both physically and climatically comfortable pedestrian routes can be created by developing a GIS-based access system by which data flow is provided by public institutions. In this study, the evaluation criteria for designing the comfortable pedestrian routes were determined by the review of national and international literature published in the last 20 years. The methodology of the study is of practical value since it ucan be applied to the identification of pedestrian comfort route in different urban areas. Moreover, this study may serve as a guide for decision-makers in future urban design and planning. with the concrete data obtained by the integration of GIS.

Keywords: Geographical Information System (GIS), multi-criteria decision making, pedestrian route comfort; walkability.


Kamusal Alanlara Erişimde Optimum Yaya Güzergâhı Konforunu Belirlemeye Yönelik Kavramsal Bir Yaklaşım

Müge Ünal Çilek
Çukurova Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Peyzaj Mimarlığı Bölümü, Adana

Yürüme, kentsel ulaşımın en eski şekillerinden birisidir. Kentsel alanlarda tüm bireylerin kullanabileceği güvenli, bağlantılı, iyi tasarlanmış konforlu yaya güzergâhlarının varlığı kentsel yaşam kalitesini artırmakta, kamusal alanlardan eşit düzeyde faydalanma olanağı sağlamaktadır. Son yıllarda erişilebilirlikle ilgili çalışmalar Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemlerindeki (CBS) gelişmelerle birlikte hız kazanmıştır. Fakat gelişmekte olan ülkelerle ilgili yapılmış çalışma sayısı oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada, Adana’da semt parkı erişim düzeyinde yer alan yaya güzergâhlarının konfor düzeylerinin fiziksel ve iklimsel koşullar doğrultusunda belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu çalışmanın yaya öncelikli ulaşım planlarının oluşturulmasında karar vericilere yol gösterici olması beklenmektedir. Çalışma alanı, Adana’nın en yoğun kullanılan parklarından birisi olan Hayal Park’da yaya erişiminin sağlandığı 15 dakikalık (800 metre) yürüme mesafesinde yer alan bölgeden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın yöntemi dört temel aşamadan oluşmaktadır. Birinci aşamada çalışmada kullanılan değerlendirme ölçütleri literatür taraması aracılığıyla belirlenmiş ve erişilebilirlik, güvenlik ve konfor olmak üzere üç ana faktör altında toplanmıştır. İkinci aşamada yaya güzergâhlarının konfor düzeyleri belirlenen 15 farklı kriter bazında alanda yapılan gözlem çalışmalarıyla değerlendirilmiştir. Üçüncü aşamada CBS tabanlı çok kriterli analizler aracılığıyla yaya güzergâhı konforları değerlendirilmiştir ve belirlenen her bir kriter katman olarak tanımlanmıştır. Son aşamada ise güvenilir, uygun ve uygulanabilir somut verilerle planlama stratejilerine yansıtılabilecek önerilerin geliştirilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Sonuç olarak bu çalışmada, konut dokusu içinde kalan sokaklardaki yaya yollarının genel olarak orta düzeyde uygun olduğu, kaldırım üzerinde fiziksel açıdan yaya ulaşımını engelleyecek pek çok fiziksel unsurun (aydınlatma direği, elektrik panoları, çöp kutuları, bitki çukurları, kaldırımın park yeri olarak kullanılması vb.) yer aldığı, bulvarlar ve ana yol kenarlarında yer alan yaya güzergâhlarının genişlik, donatı, estetik ve konfor açısından daha uygun olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Coğrafi bilgi sistemleri, çok kriterli karar verme, yaya güzergâhı konforu; yürünebilirlik.


Müge Ünal Çilek. A Conceptual Approach to Determine Optimum Pedestrian Comfort Route to Access Urban Public Spaces. Megaron. 2020; 15(3): 490-507

Corresponding Author: Müge Ünal Çilek, Türkiye


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