YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE E-JOURNAL

E-ISSN 1309-6915
Volume: 16 Issue: 3
Year: 2020

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Megaron: 16 (3)
Volume: 16  Issue: 3 - 2021
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ARTICLE
1.A Model Proposal for the Flood Risk Analysis of the Architectural Heritage: Edirne Bayezid II Complex Flood Risk Analysis
Banu Gökmen Erdoğan, Zeynep Gül Ünal
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.88785  Pages 367 - 384
İklim değişikliği projeksiyonlarına göre, gelecekte Türkiye’nin de içerisinde bulunduğu iklim kuşağında, şiddetli yağış ve ani selde artış olacaktır. Sel, mimari mirasta çok ciddi hasarlara neden olmaktadır. Önleyici korumada riskler ortaya çıkmadan önce alınan önlemler, riskleri ortadan kaldırmasa da hasarı azaltmada etkilidir. Riskler bilinmeden risklere karşı hazırlıklı olmak mümkün değildir. İklim değişikliği etkisiyle artacağı öngörülen sellere karşı mimari mirasın da hazırlıklı hale getirilmesi için sel riskinin bilinmesi çok önemlidir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada mimari mirasın sel riskini analiz etmeye yönelik bir model geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu doğrultuda mimari mirasın sel kaynaklı hasarları araştırılmış; hasarı artıran faktörlerin belirlenmesi için yerinde tespit, gözlem ve incelemeler yapılmış; tarihi sellere yönelik arşiv ve literatür taranmıştır. Elde edilen verilerden sel kaynaklı kuvvetler ve etkiler; bu kuvvet ve etkilerin mimari mirasta oluşturduğu hasar türleri, yapıda hasarların oluştuğu bölgeler ve olası hasar riskleri belirlenmiştir. Hasar düzeyini etkileyen faktörler tanımlanarak sel risk parametrelerine dönüştürülmüş ve her risk parametresi kendi içerisinde risk oluşturma düzeyine göre derecelendirilmiştir. Sel riskli alan katsayısının belirlenmesi için örneklem alanının sel risk haritaları ile geçmiş sel yayılım alanları ArcGIS programında çakıştırılmış ve sel riskli alan sınırları işaretlenmiştir. Sel risk parametreleri ve sel riskli alan katsayısı Excel programında hesaplama tablosu haline getirilmiş ve tabloya yapı künyesi kısmı eklenerek “Mimari Miras Sel Riski Analiz Formu” oluşturulmuş ve örneklem alan yapılarının bilgileri bu formlara yerinde gözlemle işlenmiştir. Geliştirilen model MISRAM, son yıllarda ani ve şiddetli yağışların artış gösterdiği Edirne’de bulunan Geçici Dünya Miras listesinde yer alan II. Bayezid Külliyesi yapılarına uygulanarak külliye yapılarının sel riski analiz edilmiş ve çalışma alanının sel riski haritası oluşturulmuştur.
According to the climate change projections, there will be an increase in torrential rains and related floods. In parallel with this, the risk of flood damage to the architectural heritage will increase in the future. Floods cause serious damage to the architectural heritage. Since flood risk analyses are generally made basin-based, studies on flood risks of cities are still inadequate. Therefore, flood risks arising from the architectural heritage’s own characteristics and its current situations are not known. Not knowing which architectural heritage poses the flood risk and its potential losses increase the damage. In preventive preservation, the measures taken before the risks occur are effective in reducing the damage, even if they do not eliminate the risks completely. It is necessary to know the flood risk in order to make the architectural heritage be prepared against floods that are predicted to increase with the effect of climate change. This study is aimed to develop a model for analysing the flood risk of architectural heritage. With the Architectural Heritage Flood Risk Analysis Model (MİSRAM) developed in line with this purpose, the vulnerability of any architectural heritage can be calculated with the parameter scores developed over the building’s own characteristics and current state. The development and implementation of the model were carried out in 4 stages. In the first stage: flood damage in the architectural heritage has been investigated. On-site detection, observation, and investigations were made to determine the factors that increase the damage. Flood-induced forces and effects from the data obtained. The types of damage caused by these forces and effects in the architectural heritage, the areas where the damage occurred in the building and the possible damage risks were determined. In the second stage: the factors affecting the damage level were defined and transformed into flood risk parameters. In the third stage: the flood risk parameters and the coefficient of flood risk area were made into a calculation table in an Excel program. The analyse form was created by adding the building identification section to the created calculation sheet. In the fourth stage: the risk analysis forms were filled in on-site. As a result of the researches made in the scope of the study’s problem, the findings below have been reached:
• Climate change causes an increase in sudden and heavy rains and accordingly flash floods, and these effects will continue to increase in the future.
• Architectural heritage located in the region with the same flood risk coefficient may have different flood risk levels depending on different parameters.
Therefore, the flood risk of the architectural heritage cannot be calculated only through the flood risk of the region where it is located, a heritage-specific risk analysis model should be developed and in this model, the heritage’s own characteristics and current situation should be taken into account.
• Factors that increase flood damage in architectural heritage should be identified and included in the calculation in risk analysis.
• There has been an increase in the number of floods in the province of Edirne after the 2000s.
The developed model proposal MISRAM was applied to the buildings of Bayezid II Complex, and the flood risk levels of the buildings were determined. Determining the flood risk level in the flood management planning of the architectural heritage is the first step and constitutes important data for decision-makers. In further studies, it is recommended to develop protection measures and interventions that will not adversely affect the heritage values for the architectural heritage whose flood risk level is determined, and to analyse the flood risk of the cultural heritage other than the architectural heritage. The flood risk of the architectural heritage can be analysed and appropriate flood prevention and response decisions can be made via applying MISRAM. It can be integrated into disaster management plans of local governments, and it may constitute the first step in reducing architectural heritage damages and preventing losses in flood disasters. MISRAM is a method that can be used both as a resource for creating architectural heritage flood risk maps and for decision-makers to take appropriate measures and intervention decisions.

2.An Example for Primary Schools in the Early Republican Era: Bursa İstiklal Primary School
Aybike Sayın, Burcu Selcen Coşkun
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.93206  Pages 385 - 401
Cumhuriyet’in kuruluş yıllarında dönemin ideolojik programı çerçevesinde eğitim sisteminde önemli reformlar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu dönüşüm mekânsal olarak da karşılığını bulmuş ve yeni eğitim sistemine hizmet verecek okul yapıları ülkenin dört yanında hızla inşa edilmeye başlanmıştır. Ülkede en yaygın olarak inşa edilen eğitim yapıları ilkokullar olmuştur. 1930’lu yıllara kadar 1. Ulusal Mimari üslubunda okullar tasarlanırken, bu tarihten sonra Maarif Vekâleti bünyesinde kurulan inşaat bürosunun başına gelen Ernst Egli’nin de etkisiyle modernist üslupta tasarlanmış okulların tercih edildiği görülmektedir. Bu dönemden başlayarak özellikle cepheler, işlevi yansıtacak şekilde yalın bırakılmış, geometrik olarak düzenlenmiş kütleler ve teras çatılar hâkim mimari dil haline gelmiştir. Erken Cumhuriyet döneminin mimari üretiminin önemli bir dilimini oluşturan eğitim yapıları bugün mimari miras kapsamında değerlendirilmektedir. Giderek uzaklaşılan bir geçmişe ait bu yapıların nitelikli örneklerinin bir an önce belgelenip değerleri saptanarak koruma altına alınması gereklidir. Bursa’da 1934 yılında eğitime başlayan İstiklal İlkokulu mimar Nedim Karakurd tarafından kübik mimari tarzında tasarlanmıştır. Okul, bugün de aynı işlevi devam ettirmektedir. Derslik kapasitesini artırmak amacıyla 2001 yılında bahçesine inşa edilen ek bina, tasarımın bütüncüllüğüne zarar vermişse de Karadurd’un ilkokul tasarımına ait özgün mimari detaylar halen ana binada büyük ölçüde okunabilmektedir. Bu çalışma kapsamında ilkokul yönetimi tarafından tutulan arşivde yapının miras değerlerinin tanımlanmasında yardımcı olacak pek çok belgeye ulaşılmıştır. Bu belgeler ışığında makalenin yazarı tarafından ilgili koruma bölge kuruluna yapılan başvuru olumlu sonuçlanmış ve yapı 2019 yılında tescillenmiştir. Makalede İstiklal İlkokulu’nun mimarisi ve modern miras olarak sahip olduğu değerler tanıtılmış, var olan koruma sorunları irdelenmiş ve modern mimarlık mirasının koruma ilkeleri çerçevesinde geleceğine yönelik koruma önerileri sunulmuştur.
In the scope of the Kemalist ideological program during the 1920-30s, significant reforms in education were achieved. The transformation of education from the Ottoman system was especially evident in the architecture of the new school buildings. School buildings serving the emerging educational system started to be built throughout the country, conducing the youth to associate with a new architecture formed by modernist ideals. In the early period following the foundation of the Republic, the architectural style preferred for school buildings was the nationalist style, whereas starting from the 1930s modernist approach took over. The modernist facades were plain, without ornamentation, and reflected the function of the building. The interiors were also formed according to the demands of the function. The classrooms were planned in rectangular forms, enabling all pupils to have a clear sight of the blackboard. These buildings were masonry structures with concrete floors/ceilings. In later years reinforced concrete started to be used as a building material. Examples of modernist schools were built primarily in the new capital of the Republic and then spread all around the nation. These buildings, which are among the principal architectural production of the early Republican era, are today regarded as cultural heritage today, witnessing the taste, the spatial preferences, building technology, and materials of their times and carrying immense memory value. There is currently an increasing academic interest in these buildings. Some are represented in the list of Turkish modernist heritage prepared by DOCOMOMO Turkey and others are listed as cultural property. However, in recent years, modernist school buildings have been threatened by consolidation works, conducted due to current building regulations against earthquakes. These interventions cause them to lose their authentic features and modernist characteristics. The buildings are not well-protected due to the reasons like negligence and inappropriate usage. There is an urgent need to draw the attention of the public to the values of these buildings. Well-qualified examples of school buildings ought to be documented and introduced as part of the modernist architectural heritage of Turkey. The aim of the study is to investigate the values and conservation issues of modernist school buildings in Turkey. As an example for these schools, this paper also aims to introduce and highlight the architecture and the heritage values of İstiklal Primary School, as a modern heritage from the city of Bursa. It attempts to identify its existing conservation issues and make proposals for their solution. The study begins with a literature review related to early republican architecture. After giving a brief overview of school buildings from Turkey as part of the modern heritage, it then focuses on İstiklal Primary School from Bursa. The school is studied in detail in the scope of this paper with plans, old photos, and documents from archives. Short interviews with teachers are conducted to understand the contemporary values and problems caused by today’s use. In the light of these findings, the architectural features and conservation state of the school are determined. İstiklal Primary School was designed by Nedim Karakurd in 1932 (opened in 1934). It stands out as a model for modernist educational buildings in Bursa. Located in the Osmangazi district, the school’s plot was tagged as an educational area in 1940 Prost and 1960s Piccinato plans for Bursa. Its cubic architecture is a unique witness of the 1930’s architectural taste in the city. Two photo albums, dating to 1934 and 2002 from the archives of the school highlighted its history and helped to enhance the existing information. The school still serves as a state primary school today. Although an extension was built on the same courtyard in 2001, the modernist impact of the original design of the main building is still visible. Within the scope of this study, the authors applied for the listing of the building to the concerned authority and thus, the school was listed in December 2019. However, legal protection is not enough. There have been misfortunate demolitions of listed modernist heritage in the city, such as Demirtaşpaşa Vocational High School, due to their so-called structural weaknesses. In order to overcome the obstacles and lack of interest in the society against the protection of modernist heritage, there should be studies carried on to raise awareness on these buildings. The present study is considered to be important because it highlights the Istiklal Primary School which needs to be preserved in its integrity while being rehabilitated for future generations. With the condition that its cultural significance is treated with care, it has the potential to be included on a future modernist heritage route planned for Bursa city.

3.The Original Synthesis of New Construction Technologies in the Beginnings of 20th Century: Architect Kemaleddin’s Vakif Han I and Hennebique System
Ömer Dabanlı
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.66742  Pages 402 - 417
On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısında yapım teknolojisinde yaşanan önemli gelişmelerin Osmanlı başkentinde etkisini göstermesi için 20. yüzyılın başlarını beklemek gerekmiştir. Yapım teknolojisi açısından bir geçiş dönemi olarak nitelendirilebilecek o yılların önemli isimlerinden birisi olan Mimar Kemaleddin, tasarlayıp inşa ettiği binalarında dönemin gelişen yapım teknolojilerinden ustalıkla faydalanmış ve mimari üslubunda olduğu gibi yapım tekniği açısından da özgün eserler ortaya koymuştur. Vakıf hanlar dizisinin ilki olan I. Vakıf Han, barındırdığı kârgir, erken betonarme (Hennebique) ve çelik taşıyıcılarla dönemin tüm yapı malzemesi ve tekniklerini sentezleyen önemli bir eserdir. Bu çalışma kapsamında, arşivlerden elde edilen özgün projeler ile mevcut bina karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiş ve binanın özgünlüğünü koruduğu gözlenmiştir. Özgün projeler ve yerinde yapılan karşılaştırmalı incelemeler sonucunda, binanın yapımında kârgir, erken betonarme (Hennebique Sistem) ve çelikle oluşturulmuş kompozit elemanların kullanıldığı belirlenmiştir. Karma bir taşıyıcı sisteme sahip olan I. Vakıf Han, sadece üslubu ve mimarisiyle değil, aynı zamanda kullanılan yapım teknikleriyle de korunması gerekli özgün niteliklere sahip bir kültür varlığıdır. Bununla birlikte son zamanlarda önemli işlev değişikliklerine sahne olan dönem yapılarında kullanılan özgün ve ender nitelikteki yapım teknolojileri yenilenerek kaybedilmektedir. Osmanlı’nın geç dönem mimarisindeki değişime aracılık etmiş olan geçiş dönemine ait binaların inşaatında kullanılan yapım tekniklerinin irdelenmesi yoluyla dönem yapılarının daha iyi anlaşılması, bu tekniklerin özgün haliyle korunabilmesi adına farkındalık oluşturması ve korunması için teşvik edici bilgiler sunması sebebiyle koruma alanına katkılar sağlamaktadır.
During the second half of the 19th century in Europe, to take effect in the Ottoman capital, Istanbul, it was necessary to wait for the beginning of the 20th century for the important developments in construction technology. Architect Kemaleddin, one of the important names of those years, which can be described as a transition period in terms of construction technology, skillfully benefited from the developing construction technologies in the buildings he designed, built, and produced original works in terms of construction technique as well as in the architectural style. As the first of the series of foundation inns, Vakıf Han I is an attractive work that synthesizes all available building materials and construction techniques of the period with its masonry, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique System), and steel elements. At the beginning of the 20th century, generally mixed construction techniques were used in such buildings which were built in Eminönü and Galata regions where a rapid urban transformation process was witnessed because of the developing maritime transport and international trade. However, there are not many studies about these buildings which are important documents of the construction techniques of the period, that enlightened the design approaches on how these techniques were used together. To protect the unique character of the buildings and as well as the period, detailed researches are needed to illuminate the construction details as well as building materials, but there are also some difficulties and limitations in conducting on-site research in such building which are usually in use. In this study, Vakif Han I is investigated in terms of new construction technologies in the beginnings of 20th century. The characterization of the original building techniques used and identification of the structural system are the purpose of the study to help for developing sustainable conservation strategies. Furthermore, the environment in which the building emerged is discussed in terms of developments in construction technologies. The structural design approaches of the period are examined through the original documents and projects obtained from the archive. The construction techniques used in the building are described by tracing the original projects in the building. The original projects of the building have been compared with the existing building by in situ observations. As a result of the comparison of original projects and existing building, it was obtained that, all available building materials and construction techniques of the period such as stone and brick masonry, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique System), and structural steel were used in Vakıf Han I, which reached today by preserving its originality. Moreover, it is determined that traditional masonry work and modern composite structural elements made of reinforced concrete (Hennebique System) and structural steel profiles were used in the construction of the building. The main structural system of the building consists of stone and brick masonry walls, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique) and composite (RC and steel) columns and beams, and as well as ribbed composite slabs. When the original projects in the archive and the existing building are compared, it is determined that the building was built completely in accordance with its projects. The contemporary conservation method accepts the approach of protecting buildings not only in terms of their architecture, art, and functions but also as a document reflecting the materials, building techniques, and construction technologies of the period they were built. Considering this approach, Vakif Han I is an original synthesis of the new construction technologies such as traditional masonry, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique System), structural steel, and composite structural elements in the beginning of the 20th century of Istanbul. Because of having an original mixed structural system and unifying the traditional and the modern, Vakif Han I is an important cultural asset with its unique characteristics that should be protected not only with its style and architecture but also with the rare construction techniques used. However, the original construction technologies used in the buildings of the period are being renewed and lost because of having recently functional changes under the pressure of tourism. Examining the construction techniques used in the buildings belonging to the transition period, which mediated the change in the late period architecture of the Ottoman Empire, provides a better understanding and contributes to the field of conservation to develop sustainable protection strategies of similar buildings by creating awareness to preserve the original techniques in their original design and provide encouraging information and aspects for their protection.

4.The Notion of Type as “Conventionalization” in Sedad Hakkı Eldem’s Architecture
Bilgen Dündar
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.78055  Pages 418 - 429
Sedad Hakkı Eldem, Türk mimarlık tarihinde önemli bir yere sahip, uluslararası mimarlık ortamında da ismi bilinen bir mimardır. Bu çalışma, Eldem’in tip anlayışı üzerine bir okuma yapmayı amaçlar. Sibel Bozdoğan’ın tip kavramı açısından, Bülent Tanju’nun ise metinlerinin tekil anlamı sebebiyle Eldem’in tavrının klasik olduğu yorumlarını kabul etmekle beraber; çalışma Eldem’in görsel bütünlüğe yeniden ulaşma konusunda kullandığı metotların, kontrol mekanizmalarını içermesi sebebiyle modern bir anlayışı da barındırdığını göstermeyi amaçlar. Diğer bir yandan metin, Bozdoğan’ın Eldem’in mimarlığını Batı mimarlığı bağlamında okuması anlayışına eklemlenir. Bozdoğan Eldem’in tip kavramını Batı’da bu kavramın öncülleri olan mimarlar üzerinden okurken, bu çalışma Eldem’in tip anlayışını Almanya’da yüzyıl başında kurulan Deutscher Werkbund’un bünyesinde ortaya çıkan tip ve bireysellik tartışmaları üzerinden okur. Stanford Anderson standartlaşmanın dışında kültürel anlama sahip olan tip anlayışını Muthesius’un typisierung kavramı bağlamında uzlaşım “conventionalization” olarak değerlendirir. Eldem’in tip anlayışı bu metinde Anderson’ın uzlaşım kavramına dayanarak okunmaktadır. Tip kavramını sadece fiziksel ve formal bir gerçeklik, endüstrileşmenin bir sonucu ve seri üretime olanak sağlayan bir yöntem olarak ele almanın dışında, daha geniş bir bağlamda okumamıza olanak sağlayan bu kavram Eldem’in metinlerinde alt açılımlarıyla beraber takip edilmiştir. Söylem analizi olarak kabul edebileceğimiz çalışma Eldem’in 1929-1942 yılları arasında üretmiş olduğu metinlere dayanır. Çalışma, Eldem’in bahsedilen üretimlerinde sistem kurma ve kontrol mekanizmalarının farklı düzlemlerde ortaya çıktığı sonucuna varır. Bu kontrol mekanizmaları ve geleneği canlandırıp görsel birliği yeniden yaratma istenci typisierung kavramının da temelini oluşturmaktadır. Metin bu iki farklı tip anlayışının bu yöndeki benzerliklerini ortaya koyar.
Sedad Hakkı Eldem is an architect who has an important place in the history of Turkish architecture. The purpose of this paper is to contribute an inclusive insight into Eldem’s notion of type. Sibel Bozdoğan defines Eldem’s understanding of type as a classic attitude due to his desire to gain authority from past examples and to pass this authoritarianism on to future generations. Similarly, Bülent Tanju reads Eldem’s approach as a classical attitude, as his texts have a singular meaning in contrast to his work of architecture. Although this study accepts Eldem’s classical attitude, it aims to show that the methods used to revitalize visual integrity include a notion of modernity as they encompass control mechanisms. The study aims to articulate Bozdoğan’s understanding of Eldem’s architecture in the context of Western architecture. While Bozdoğan reads Eldem’s concept of type through the architects who were the predecessors of this concept in the West, this study aims to read it through the discussions of type and individuality that emerged within the Deutscher Werkbund. Eldem’s understanding of type coincides with the concept of typisierung of Herman Muthesius and his supporters. There are similarities in the methods and concepts they propose to implement in order to provide visual unity and revitalize the culture. In addition to concepts such as norm, organization, system, exclusion mechanisms, the expressions that refer to cultural unity such as harmony, reconciliation, and anonymity are the concepts that are sought in this study. Stanford Anderson reads Muthesius’s Notion of typisierung, which has a cultural meaning outside of standardization, as “conventionalization.” Eldem’s understanding of type is read in this study based on Anderson’s concept of conventionalization. Apart from treating the concept of type as only a physical and formal reality, a result of industrialization, this concept, which allows us to read in a wider context, has been followed in Eldem’s texts. The methodology of this study involves a discursive analysis based on the texts that Eldem produced between 1929 and 1942. We can place Eldem’s buildings and texts at opposite poles of the debate on type and individuality in the Werkbund. While Eldem’s buildings represent the individuality camp because they are unique, his texts are included in the type camp due to the desire to create the convention. The study leaves the reading of Eldem’s buildings in this context to future research and looks at only Eldem’s texts and the National Architecture Seminar work as a general framework. The study concludes that the construction of a system and control mechanisms in Eldem’s discourse appear at different levels. First of all, in the analyzes he has made in the National Architecture Seminar, he reveals the types that will set the norm for later studies (at the level of details, at the level of plan type, etc.). In this process, he rationalizes, classifies, and organizes the construction forms of the tradition, representing them in a different way than they existed. Actually, the existing architectural product is carried to another context, objectified, and in a sense uses for its own purpose. He makes these to find out the common value, the essence, as Bozdoğan said. The important point for us is that he sees these types as tools to provide visual unity to be used in the production of the new architecture. The program proposed for the sake of achieving this visual unity and will be realized with the support of the state is a program based entirely on controlling the architectural practice. This is the other level where it uses control mechanisms to set up a system. Here, there is not only to prevent the individual tendencies of the architect but also the desire to control the whole process from material production to training of the builders. This is a control situation that should be done to avoid the slightest error in the system and an abnormal situation. That is why the power of the state should step in. Eldem’s thoughts include establishing a system and the mechanism that will realize this system through norms and an organization. These control mechanisms and the will to revitalize tradition and recreate visual unity form the basis of the concept of typisierung. The study reveals the similarities of these two different types of understanding in this respect.

5.Façade Characteristics of Apartment Buildings Constructed Between 1965-1973 at Bağdat Avenue and its Surroundings
Hale Gönül
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.74384  Pages 430 - 453
1950’li yılların ortalarına kadar İstanbul’un Anadolu yakasında bir sayfiye yeri olan Bağdat Caddesi, bu tarihlerden itibaren daimi ikamet alanı olarak dönüşmeye başlamış ve 1965 yılında çıkarılan Kat Mülkiyeti Kanunu’ndan itibaren inşa faaliyetleri hız kazanarak bölgede çok sayıda apartman tasarlanmıştır. 1972 yılı sonunda yürürlüğe giren ve cadde üzeri ile sahildeki parseller haricindeki alanlarda daha yoğun ve yüksek yapılaşmaya izin veren “1/5000 Bostancı Erenköy Bölgeleme İmar Planı” ile bölgedeki konut tasarımları değişmeye başlamıştır. Bu yüzden, 1965-1973 yılları arasında inşa edilen yapılar, önemli birer belge niteliği taşımaktadır. Bu apartmanlar, rasyonel kütleleri, geniş balkon ve pencere açıklıkları, çiçeklik, balkon parapeti, güneşlik, duvar panosu gibi dekoratif cephe ögeleri, dinamik geometrik cephe kompozisyonları ve benzer malzeme kullanımları ile ortak karakteristik özellikler taşımaktadır. Bu bağlamda makalenin amacı, söz konusu apartman yapılarının cephe özelliklerini belgelemek, özgün karakteristiklerini dönemin dünya ve Türkiye mimarlığı bağlamında değerlendirmek, onları Türkiye’de aynı zaman diliminde tasarlanmış konutlardan ayıran özellikleri ortaya koymak olarak şekillenmiştir. Bu değerlendirme aynı zamanda yapıların mimari tasarımları ile bulundukları bölgeye tanımlı, okunabilir bir kentsel kimlik kazandırıp kazandırmadığını da sorgulamayı sağlayacaktır. Çalışma kapsamında, Bağdat Caddesi bölgesinde 15 adet yapı seçilmiş, bunlar fotoğraflar ile belgelenmiş ve Kadıköy Belediyesi Arşivi’nden yapı bilgileri derlenmiştir. Seçilen apartmanlar, kütle biçimlenişi, karakteristik mimari ögeler ve malzeme başlıkları altında incelenerek cephe özellikleri ortaya konulmuştur. Bu özellikler dönemin mimari eğilimleri bağlamında ele alınarak bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır.
Bağdat Avenue, which was a summer place on the Anatolian side of Istanbul until the mid-1950s started to transform into a permanent residential district after this date while construction activities accelerated and apartments were built in the region after the Condominium Law was enacted in 1965. The “1/5000 Bostancı Erenköy Zoning Construction Plan” was introduced at the end of 1972, which allows denser and higher construction in parcels except for the ones on the coast and Bağdat Avenue, so apartment designs started to change in the region. For this reason, the apartments built between 1965 and 1973 are regarded as important documents. They bear common characteristic features with their rational forms, large balcony and window openings, flowerpots, railings, sunshades, decorative wall panels, dynamic geometric façade compositions, and similar façade materials. These features emerge as important elements defining the urban character of the region. In this regard, questioning the authentic features, distinguishing them from the contemporaneous apartments in Turkey, and evaluating them in the context of the architectural tendencies of the era become important. The aim of the article emerges as documenting the façade characteristics of the apartments built between 1965 and 1973 at Bağdat Avenue, evaluating their authentic characteristics within the context of world architecture as well as the architecture of Turkey. This evaluation enables to question whether they designate a defined urban identity to their region. Within the scope of the study, 15 buildings were selected and documented with photographs while building data were gathered from the Archives of Kadıköy Municipality. Façade characteristics of the selected apartments were analyzed and compared with the contemporaneous apartments in Turkey to determine the similarities and differences, and they were assessed in the context of the architectural tendencies of the era. The façade characteristics were studied under the titles: building mass features, characteristic architectural elements, and material features. The shaping of the mass and window openings; flowerpots, railings, sunshades, wall panels, and sculptural elements; usage of travertine, marble, wood, and metal; were examined under these headings. The analyses were assisted with figures and similarities as well as differences with other apartments were explained. In addition, the architectural elements were interpreted in relation to the contemporaneous architectural attitudes. The analyses led to the following inferences:
- Contrary to the central districts of Istanbul, these residences have lesser floors as well as wider windows and balconies displaying the summer resort characteristics of the area.
- Although they have common features with other apartments such as rational building mass, wide façade openings, stylized railings, and sculptural elements, they bear distinguishing characteristics such as dynamic compositions, flowerpots, sunshades, artworks, and different materials.
- These authentic features define an architectural language and constitute an urban character.
- Despite their rational planning, as a result of the dynamism and complexity of the façade, excess usage of flowerpots and sunshades, and geometric compositions, it can be assessed that Late Modern principles were adopted while Brutalism is also monitored in a limited sense.
- As the façades bear local elements like travertine cladding, sunshades, and wall panels, a regionalist attitude, which is employed together with universal architectural values, can be observed. The apartments built between 1965 and1973 in Bağdat Avenue have dynamic façade compositions despite their rational masses while they bear local components. In this regard, these residences dwell upon assembling local circumstances with universal values and endeavor to make a connection with their place. They distinguish from other apartments with their dynamic façade compositions, employment of travertine and wood, excess usage of flowerpots or sunshades, usage of sculptural elements and artworks, and constitute an architectural pattern indigenous to the region, which makes them an important part of the urban characteristic of Bağdat Avenue. Within this study, it has been aimed to contribute to the literature by documenting the façade characteristics of the apartments constructed between 1965 and 1973 at Bağdat Avenue, which are architectural heritage in danger due to the urban transformation of the region. In addition, the apartments in question have been evaluated together with other examples from Turkey to exhibit their authentic features and have been discussed in the context of global architecture so that an evaluation can be made in terms of the contemporaneous architectural tendencies. These evaluations have been meant to exhibit the importance of these buildings within the architectural context.

6.The Façade Language in the Apartment Designs of Melih Koray, a Productive Figure of 1960-1980 Period
Efsun Ekenyazıcı Güney, Hande Tulum Okur
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.03264  Pages 454 - 467
Apartman, Türkiye mimarlık pratiğinin barınma kültürü bağlamındaki başat mekânsal karşılıklarından biridir. Bu yapı tipi özellikle 1960-1980 yılları arasında mimarlık pratiğini etkileyerek hızla önemli bir konut tipine dönüşmüş ve pek çok farklı mimarın tasarladığı sayısız örnek söz konusu olmuştur. Ancak Mimarlık ve Arkitekt dergilerinde yapılan dijital arşiv taraması üzerinden dönem literatürü incelendiğinde, sadece dönemin popüler figürlerinin konut tasarımlarından bahsedildiği ve bunların sadece bir kısmının apartman tasarımı olduğu görülmüştür. Halbuki Kadıköy Belediyesi’nde yapılan arşiv taramasında apartman tasarımı bağlamında farklı figürlerle karşılaşılmıştır. Bu figürlerden biri olan Melih Koray, 1960-1980 yılları arasında Kadıköy’de 145’ten fazla apartman tasarımına imza atan üretken bir isim olmuştur. Ancak özellikle özgün cephe dili ile dikkati çeken Koray’a literatürde -neredeyse- yer verilmemiştir. Bu noktada, Koray’ın apartman tasarımları üzerine bir çalışma yapılması önemlidir. Dolayısıyla çalışma kapsamında mimarın kişisel arşivine ulaşan yazarlar, arşivde yer alan ve çoğu Kadıköy’de bulunan apartmanların günümüzde mevcut olup olmadığını saha araştırması ile belirlemiş, belgelemiş ve ardından Kadıköy Belediyesi İmar Müdürlüğü Arşivi’nde bu yapıların her birini taramıştır. Yapılan araştırma, her ne kadar Koray’ın pek çok yapısı yıkılmış olsa da farklı cephe kurgularının denendiği ayakta kalan apartman tasarımlarının sayısının oldukça fazla olduğunu göstermektedir. Çalışma kapsamında, 1960-1980 yılları arasında yoğun apartman tasarımı etkinliği ve bu tasarımlarda oluşturduğu cephe dili ile anılabilecek Koray’a dikkati çekmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, mimarın apartman cephelerinde kullandığı unsurlar seçili örnekler üzerinden tartışılmış ve bu tasarımlar cephe çözümleri üzerinden analiz edilmiştir. Böylece Koray’ın apartman tasarımlarının cephe diline ilişkin bir okuma yapan bu çalışma, literatüre katkı sağlamayı hedeflemiştir.
This study covers an analysis of the dwelling culture of Kadıköy, Istanbul in 1960-1980 through apartment typology in the context of a neglected prominent figure; Melih Koray’s designs. Apartment dwelling type which was observed in late 19th century is one of the primary spatial reflections of Turkish architectural practice in the context of dwelling culture. Due to new construction materials, techniques and introducing optimum comfort for many families through different units, apartment buildings were differentiated from the precursor dwelling types. Due to several reasons -the transformation of the national and international policies of the country, migration from the rural areas to Istanbul, the urban property ownership law, etc.-, this building type especially effects the architectural practice of the 1960-1980 period, and it rapidly becomes important and pervasive. When a literature analysis is conducted through Turkish architectural literature, it is observed that only the dwelling designs of the popular architectural figures of the era such as Emin Onat, Utarit İzgi, Sedad Hakkı Eldem are underlined and only a part of these dwellings are apartments. So, a gap in the literature of Turkish Architecture in the context of the specific era’s architectural figures, architectural practice; apartment as a dwelling unit is realized. Authors believe that it is important to bridge this gap and document selective examples of these apartments since the ongoing urban transformation process caused a demolishment of the representatives of 1960-1980 apartment buildings. In order to decipher the apartments of Kadıköy -one of the oldest dwelling settlements of Istanbul- built in 1960-1980, several site visits are conducted. Then a list of apartments that were selected by the authors according to their noteworthy façade language are prepared. After, an archival research in Kadıköy Municipality is employed to find additional information about these apartments and their designers. Authors figured out that there were numerous examples of apartments that were designed by various, anonymous architects. Melih Koray, who takes attention with his design language of apartments where a distinguished plan organization, façade design and aesthetical details are realized, is one of these figures. He designed more than 145 apartments in Kadıköy in the specific era. Since he is a neglected figure in the architectural literature, this research aims to concentrate on his apartment designs in 1960-1980 period through his façade design language. In order to analyze his apartment designs, authors reached the personal archive of the architect. They contacted Melih Koray’s son and an in-depth interview is conducted. Here, a personal notebook that Koray documented his designs of 1960-1980 period is found. Authors used this notebook to check if the apartments of Koray in the notebook which are mostly located in Kadıköy do still exist or not, through field study. When they figured out the existing ones -99 of them- they made a comparative analysis between the notebook and the Kadıköy Municipality Archives. After confirming that the existing apartments are his designs, authors listed these apartments, their names, construction dates and locations. Authors realized that the existing apartments of Koray had different facade organizations. Through the façades of apartments of Koray, authors also noticed that there are some common important notions that the architect used in his façade language. These notions can be classified as creating a façade language by the help of gridal elements, creating a rhythmic frame by the reflection of the structure, integrating functional elements to the façade, giving dynamism to the façade through three-dimensional elements, designing canopies to emphasize the entrances. Therefore, in the context of the study, Koray is emphasized with his various apartment designs in between 1960-1980 and with his façade language in these designs. The notions that he used in his apartment façades are discussed through selected samples and these designs are analyzed through the façade organizations. So, this study put emphasis to a neglected figure of Turkish architecture; Melih Koray and his apartment design language and aims to contribute to the architectural literature with the façade language of the apartment designs of Koray. Since Melih Koray is among a group of neglected architectural figures of the era, authors suggest concentrating on the other figures in the upcoming studies in order to contribute to architectural literature.

7.Interpretation of Quality Parameters in Interior Design Special and An Evaluation Over Barcelona Design Museum
Merve Karaoğlu Can
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.98624  Pages 468 - 487
Yapı, bir insan aktivitesidir. Kullanıcının, tasarımcının ve dahil olan diğer herkesin kişisel görüşlerinin, tercihlerinin ve karakterinin, mekân üzerinde kendi etkisi söz konusudur. Bu kapsamda çalışma, mekân ile kullanıcısı arasındaki dinamik bir yapıya sahip ilişkinin “kalite” kavramı üzerinden okunmasını temel almaktadır. Böyle bir ilişkinin; toplumun eğitim, kültür, estetik vb. bilincini geliştirmesi öngörülen müze mekânlarında “ideal” olan ile birlikte “olumlu” davranış biçimlerini geliştirmesi beklenir. Mekânsal kalitenin üst seviyelerde sağlanabilmesi davranışı olumlu yönde etkileyerek ziyaretçi kapsamını genişletirken, düşük seviyelerde bırakılmasının olumsuz etki ile ziyaretçi kapsamını daraltacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda çalışma, bütünde literatür taraması, uygulamaya yönelik verilerin oluşturulması ve gözlem yolu ile değerlendirme olmak üzere iki temel yöntem kullanılarak kurgulanmıştır. Bir tasarımcının tasarım sürecinde başvurabileceği ya da bir araştırmacının değerlendirme yöntemi olarak kullanabileceği kalite parametreleri Van der Voordt ile Van Wegen’in ortak çalışması olan “Architecture in Use” adlı eser referans alınarak listelenmiş ve iç mimarlık mesleği bağlamında nasıl değerlendirilebileceklerine dair araştırmalar ile açıklanmıştır. Böylece mekânın oluşturulması ve okunmasında sistematik fayda sağlayacağı düşünülen parametre göstergeleri için altlık oluşturulmuştur. Sonraki aşamada ise yazar tarafından belirlenen bu göstergeler tablolaştırılarak sunulmuş, mevcut bir müze yapısı oluşturulan rehber kapsamında irdelenmiştir. Bu noktada öncelikli amaç; tasarımcıların araştırmalarını geliştirebilecekleri yönlere ve tasarım kararları alırken göz önünde bulundurmaları gereken değişkenlere yönelik kontrol listesi olarak da kullanılabilecek nitelikte bir rehber ortaya koymak, kitlelerin deneyimlerine bağlı olarak geliştirdiği davranış sürecine memnuniyet çerçevesinde katkı sağlamaktır.
A building being professionally well thought out is not enough for it to be seen as architecture. In cases where user requirements are not met sufficiently or none and the labour is defective and faulty, architectural quality cannot be mentioned (Van der Voordt, Van Wegen, 2005: 4). The ability of a museum to offer its visitors a special experience within the scope of its works cannot be considered apart from the well designed places where those works are presented. In this context, the main motivation of the study is to ensure that the requirements are taken into consideration during the design phase of the space that brings the visitor to the work/object and to increase satisfaction depending on the quality. The research objectives summarized below were determined toward these considerations;
• To explain the spatial features that affect visitor behavior within quality parameters,
• To develop a guideline proposal as a base for a future museum design,
• To present evaluations about a sample case with reference to guideline.
Taking the museum experience as a whole is important for the visitor’s desire to spend more time in the place. Although the concentration seems to be in exhibition spaces; auxiliary spaces, circulation areas, reception areas, etc. are equally effective on behavior and requires user-oriented solutions. With this awareness, the discussion of museums, which are social spaces, within the framework of holistic design approach is among the secondary purposes. The parameters that should be considered in the design process are classified into categories/items so that they do not lose their visibility in the whole and create a simple and understandable syllabus. This classification was created with reference to the work named “Architecture in Use”, which is the joint work of Van der Voordt and Van Wegen, and based on the explanations of each parameter in the literature, the indicators that are thought to be systematically beneficial in reading the space have been determined. These indicators have been brought together in a guide that is expected to support the designer or researcher in the planning and evaluating phase of a museum project. The purpose of the guide is to contribute to how research can be developed in the design process and what variables can be taken into account while making quality researches. The establishment of a design museum in Turkey has been the focal point of the works to be carried out towards the development of design consciousness after Istanbul become UNESCO ‘Creative City of Design’ in 2017. Therefore, Barcelona Design Museum, one of the famous examples around the globe, has been evaluated in the context of spatial quality by taking the developed guideline proposal as reference. A chart was prepared in order to develop a concrete, systematic and practical form of expression in the evaluation of the determined indicators. Suggestions covering the development of methods and data for researches to be put forward after this study can be listed as follows;
• This research is not about how designers should design a space, but it suggests what a designer should pay attention in the design process without ignoring the human being, the user and the visitor of the space in general discourse for museums who is the reason for the existence of that space, through a guideline. Therefore, with some formal changes that can be made, the guideline can be transformed from the checklist to a scoring chart or model proposal based on scoring for each parameter.
• Within the scope of the research, it is foreseen that the author may experience the space as the user herself. For this reason, a different framework has been drawn according to the researches that can be made over multiple users. However, future studies can be grouped according to demographic characteristics within the parameters and indicators revealed.
• The connection the user establishes with the space has an important place in shaping his/her memories about that space. For this reason, expanding the status of quality within the framework of architectural memory formation may reveal new spatial research topics. In the literature reviews, it was realized that spatial quality studies were mostly examined in urban scale and in some studies on structural scale. Therefore, it is thought that this study, which has developed a user-oriented approach to interior space quality, will present a different perspective to the literature.

8.Change of Common Spaces from Construction to Settlement: A Research on Housing Cooperatives Constructed in Ankara Between 1950-1980
Eda Balaban Varol, Gülçin Cankız Elibol
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.56198  Pages 488 - 507
1950-1980 yılları arasında konut üretim biçimlerinden biri olan kooperatif yapıları, diğer apartman tipi konut biçimlerinden farklı olarak, üretim yöntemlerinden mesken edinme süreçlerine, mimari tasarımlarından iskân özelliklerine tüm mesken sahiplerinin ortaklığı ve benzerliğine dayalı bir yapılanmayı içermektedir. Mesken sahiplerinin bir araya gelmesini, bir arada mekân ve zaman paydaşı olabilmesini öngören bu yapılanma; mimar tarafından geniş ortak alanların düşünüldüğü bir mimari planlamayı “ortak bir yaşam biçimi” olarak kullanıcısına sunmaktadır. Bu kapsamda bir durum çalışması olarak tasarlanan araştırmada, 1950-1980 yılları arasında Ankara’da inşa edilen kooperatif yapılarındaki ortak mekânlar ve ortak mekânların günümüzdeki kullanım durumları sorgulanmaktadır. Araştırmanın temel amacı mimarın tasarladığı ortak mekânlar ile ortak mekânların günümüzdeki kullanımlarını karşılaştırarak analiz etmek ve geniş ortak alanların düşünüldüğü bir mimari tasarımın yerleşke sakinlerinin ortak mekân kullanma eğilimleri üzerindeki etkisini anlamaya çalışmaktır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, bu mimari planlamanın sosyal ilişkiler üzerindeki rolü de çalışma içinde sorgulanma olanağı bulmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemi, 1950-1980 yılları arasında Ankara’da inşa edilen kooperatif yapılarından amaçlı örneklem yöntemi ile belirlenen 10 yerleşke olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu yerleşkelerin projelerine ilgili kurumların arşivlerinden ulaşılmış; mimarın tasarladığı ortak mekânlar projeler üzerinden analiz edilmiştir. Yerleşkelerin projelerinde tespit edilen ortak alanların günümüzdeki kullanımları, yerleşkelere gidilerek yerinde araştırılmıştır. Bu karşılaştırmada ulaşılan bulgulara göre, ortak mekânların kullanımlarındaki farklılıklar projeler aracılığıyla haritalandırılmıştır.
Housing cooperatives, one of the forms of housing production from 1950 to 1980, differ from other forms of apartment-type housing in some aspects. Cooperative housings, with the principle of association, cover the housing acquirement processes for a community that comes together to meet the need for housing. This process is based on the association and similar preferences of all dwelling owners, regarding the production methods of cooperative houses and the housing acquisition processes, besides their architectural design and the housing characteristics. Large common areas and spaces offered by the architects in the cooperative housing areas built in Ankara between 1950 and 1980 enabled the owners of dwellings to come together and become stakeholders of spaces and time. Apartment buildings, which are the primary forms of housing production of the period, are seen as quick and simple solutions to housing needs and agents detaching the individual from the social context; while cooperative housings built in large settlements offer the user something beyond housing. Dwelling owners residing in cooperative housings have the experience of being a part of a community through its architectural design based on the principle of ‘common way of life’. In this context, the study examines the common spaces of cooperative housings built in Ankara between 1950 and 1980 and the current uses of these common spaces. The main aim of the study is to compare and analyze the common spaces designed by the architects and the current use of common spaces, and to try to understand the impact of the architectural design that offers large common spaces on the tendencies of the residents of the compound to use the common spaces. For this purpose, the role of architectural planning on social relations can also be questioned in the study. Since the research will take place through determined residential settlements, the study is designed as a case study. The sample of the study was selected using the criterion sample method among the types of purposive sampling, from cooperative structures built in Ankara between 1950 and 1980. The scope of the study was limited to 10 settlements that meet the criteria and the common places belonging to these settlements. During the research process, firstly the projects belonging to 10 settlements were accessed from the archives of the relevant institutions. Then, the common spaces designed by the architects were analyzed through the projects. In order to determine the current uses of the common areas identified in the projects of the settlements, the areas were marked on the project by going to the settlements. In this way, the common areas designed by the architect and the common areas used today were compared and the differences between them were mapped through projects. In the study with mapping, it was questioned that which common areas were designed by the architect; what changes took place in these areas that the user experiences today, and whether there were social areas that the users subsequently created together, unlike what the architect planned. According to the findings, in all 10 settlements surveyed, the architect left large and non-functional gaps; the volume covered by these areas was as important as the internal volume of the blocks. During visits to the settlements, it was concluded that 8 settlements had limited use of common spaces and common space; however, in the 2 settlements examined in the study (Yeşiltepe and Güneş settlements), the tendency to create and use common space was dominant. In these two settlements, it was found that the architect planned large and bright spaces inside the blocks, and the residents of the settlement also turned this area between the floors into a common space. It has been observed that these newly formed common areas are located in front of the doors as an external extension of the house and are used more intensively than the common areas created outside. Considering the gaps and common areas designed by the architect, it was found that the cooperative structures of this period had an architectural organization aimed at the coexistence of the residents of the campus; the architect encouraged the use of common space and the creation of new common spaces. In this context, it is thought that the success of the cooperative structures built in Ankara between 1950-1980 in the process of creating common living spaces and including the residents of the campus in this formation will shed light on today’s apartment-type housing production.

9.Evaluation of Structural Art in Tall Buildings Using Fuzzy Logic Analytical Hierarchy Process Method
Sultan Şimşek, Ayşin Sev
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.65037  Pages 508 - 522
İlk defa 1970’li yıllarda strüktürel tasarımda mükemmellik olarak tanımlanan strüktürel sanat, yapıların sağlamlık ve güvenlik beklentilerini karşıladığı gibi, ait olduğu toplumun uzun vadede estetik duyularına da hitap edebilmelidir. Strüktürel sanat eseri yapılar, biçimsel anlamda estetik faktörlerin ön planda olduğu, tek defaya özgü tasarlanan, toplumda ilgi ve merak uyandıran yapılardır. Endüstri Devrimi’nin hemen öncesinde ortaya çıkan ve zaman içinde teknolojik gelişmelerle birlikte örneklerin arttığı strüktürel sanat eserleri çoğunlukla, köprüler, geniş açıklıklı yapılar, kuleler ve yüksek yapılar olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında yüksek yapılarda strüktürel sanat kavramı ve ilkeleri tanımlanmış ve bu çerçevede; kendi dönemi içerisinde sanat eseri olarak kabul gören yüksek yapılar arasından her strüktür sistemden birer yapı örnek olarak seçilmiş ve sanatsal özellikler dikkate alınarak belirlenen ölçütler yardımıyla sanata en yakından en uzağa bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Yüksek yapıların strüktürel sanat açısından değerlendirilmesinde, değerlendirmenin sayısal verilere dayandırılarak daha gerçekçi ve somut sonuçlara ulaşması amacıyla Bulanık Mantık Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci (BMAHS) yönteminden yararlanılmıştır. Yapılan değerlendirme sonucunda, örnek yapılar arasında bulunan Swiss Re Binası diğerlerine göre strüktürel sanata en yakın yapı olarak tespit edilmiştir.
To decide which high-rise buildings would be considered as artworks in the period they have been constructed with a higher structural art quality in mind is the problem of the study. To evaluate the structural art from the closest to the furthest while taking into account the structural art principles and features and to reach more concrete and objective data are the goals of the study. The fuzzy logic analytical hierarchy process (FLAHP) method is preferred to evaluate tall buildings in terms of structural art. First, evaluation categories and criteria are determined. The evaluation criteria consist of formal and structural elements. Secondly, sample structures are chosen to evaluate. Sample structures were those that are accepted as artworks and outshine with their structural features among other buildings. The structures were scored by three experts, using linguistic expressions through criteria. After scoring, the mathematical calculation was started. This is where the importance of the FLAHP method comes into play. The subjective evaluations are transformed into objective data as a result and, it was possible to make an evaluation of structural art among the buildings by reaching their performance values. The theoretical part of the study consists of structural art and its principles. In the study, the concepts of art and aesthetics are discussed, the subject of structural art is discussed through high-rise buildings. To make the evaluation sound, evaluation criteria were made by taking into account the general theoretical elements and principles of structural art, design, and high-rise buildings. The buildings were selected from the buildings whose aesthetic factors were prioritized, designed for a single time, and became the symbol of their locations. The structures are those built between 1969 and 2011, designed in the competitive environment of the period, innovative in terms of the technology used, and belonging to different structural systems. Since there are no restrictions on the number of experts, selected samples, and the number of criteria in the literature, the numbers tried to be kept within optimum limits to make an objective assessment. The biggest reason for the selection of the FLAHP method in this study is that it transforms subjective expressions into objective data with quite simple mathematical operations. As a result, the structures ranked according to their performance values by evaluation of tall buildings in terms of structural art. This ranking is, starting from the first; Swiss Re, Capital Gate Building, Turning Torso, Willis Tower, Burj Khalifa, Al Hamra Tower, Taipei 101, John Hancock Center, First Wisconsin Bank, One Shell Plaza. In the importance of the main criteria categories, the structure is the first, the mass form is the second, and the façade is the third. The order of importance of the sub-criteria; In the structure category, the perception of the structure from the outside is the first, the functionality of the structure is the second, the structural technology is the third. The role of the structure in mass formation is the first in the mass form category, the perception of the geometry of the mass is the second, the reflection of the mass on the structure is the third. In the façade design category; the perception of the structure on the façade is the first, the symbolic quality of the façade is the second, and the façade is symbolic. reflecting the technology was determined as the third. In the ranking, the Swiss Re Building was determined as the tallest building closest to structural art among other examples. In this article, the subject of “structural art” is handled in the context of “high buildings”. Structural art has been studied before in studies on bridges, wide-span structures, and dams, but no studies on tall buildings were made. This study is one of the exemplary studies in which the subject of structural art and high-rise buildings brought together. When the studies carried out in the field of art and aesthetics are examined, it could be seen that abstract and subjective results have been reached with verbal expressions in the evaluation studies. This article is important because it is the first study to reach concrete and objective data on art and aesthetics, especially in which numerical operations are performed. It is important in terms of setting an example for the use of the FLAHP method and numerical values in the field of architecture, which constitutes the intersection of science and art.

10.A Decision Support Model Proposal for the Detection and Evaluation of Deterioration in Window Systems
Emine Merve Okumuş, Özlem Eren
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.76402  Pages 523 - 542
Yapıların işlevsel ve estetik açıdan önemli bir bileşeni olan pencere sistemlerinde çevresel, insan kaynaklı ve zamana bağlı etkenlerle birlikte performans, dayanım ve estetik değer kayıpları görülmektedir. Pencerelerin uzun süreli hizmet verebilmeleri için tasarım aşamasında alınan kararların doğru bir şekilde uygulandıktan sonra kullanım aşamasında bakım planlamalarının zamanında yapılması gerekmektedir. Bakım ve onarımları zamanında yapılmayan pencerelerde görülecek bozulmalar doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak cephenin performansını etkilemektedir. Çalışmanın amacı, kullanım sürecinde pencere sistemlerinde karşılaşılan bozulmalara zamanında doğru teşhis, analiz ve müdahale ile pencere sistemlerinin etkin kullanımını sağlayacak karar destek modeli geliştirmektir. Geliştirilen karar destek modeli; durum değerlendirmesi, olası müdahale alternatiflerinin belirlenmesi, durum raporu ve envanterinin hazırlanması olarak üç ana aşamadan ve bu aşamalara veri sağlayan destek veri tabanından oluşmaktadır. Modelin uygulanabilirliğinin ölçülebilmesi için İstanbul’da bir eğitim binasının alüminyum çerçeveli penceresinde model uygulanmıştır. Uzman kişilerin kullanımına uygun düzenlenen tablo sistemiyle durum değerlendirme işlemleri hızlı, eksiksiz ve sayısal olarak elde edilebilmektedir. Pencere sistemlerinin yaşam süresince durumlarının kayıt altına alınmasıyla envanter oluşturulması ve karşılaşılan bozulma türlerine ve sebeplerine yönelik çalışmalara veri sağlaması planlanmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında geliştirilen karar destek model önerisi ile karar verici kişilerin, üreticilerin, tasarımcıların ve uygulayıcıların yenilemeye yönelik bilinçlendirilmesi, kullanıcı konforunun korunması, cephe ve pencere sistemlerindeki değer kayıplarının azaltılması, hatalı müdahale işlemlerinden kaynaklı performans kayıplarının önlenmesi ve ulusal kaynakların korunması hedeflenmektedir. Modelin ileride yazılıma dönüştürülmesi ve bozulmalarla ilgili görsel ve yazılı bilgilerle desteklendiğinde karar verici kişiler tarafından da kullanılabilir.
Performance, endurance, and aesthetic value losses occur due to environment, human, and time factors in windows, which is a significant component of buildings in terms of function and aesthetics. The maintenance planning of windows should be conducted on time during the usage phase as well as accurately implementing the decisions taken at the design stage so that the windows can serve for a long time. If maintenance and repairs are not performed on time, directly or indirectly, deteriorations that will decrease the performance of buildings and products’ lifespan will occur. These issues will affect the performance and aesthetic properties of windows and facades. A systematic approach that ensures effective use of timely accurate identification, analysis, and intervention regarding the malfunctions encountered in windows during occupancy is presented. The proposed model that will be used by experts is aimed to prevent erroneous maintenance practices, protect user comfort, reduce usage costs, and contribute to the national economy by conserving resources via a decision support model for the deterioration of windows. The decision support model that is developed consists of three main stages, namely condition assessment, determination of possible intervention alternatives, and preparation of the condition report and inventory, and a support database is created to provide data for these stages. The first stage of the model, also known as the condition assessment stage, consists of three phases: data collection, condition analysis, and assessment. General information about the building and window are recorded during the data collection phase. In the second phase, i.e., condition analysis, the deterioration intensity and the area of disturbance will be determined after detecting malfunctions in windows. In the condition assessment phase, deterioration’s severity is determined using NEN 2767 method, while deterioration’s scores in the component are calculated by using the cardinal scale method. The second stage of the model, which is known as the determination of possible intervention alternatives, consists of four steps: possible intervention alternatives, intervention priority scores, intervention scores, and appropriate intervention alternatives. Possible intervention alternatives are prepared according to intervention lists created in the support databases. In determining the intervention priority scores (the second step), intervention priority score was given by evaluating the effects of deterioration on the three parameters, i.e., aesthetics, performance, and strength, on a 5-point scale according to the type of deterioration and the component in which it is located. In the last step of determining the possible intervention alternatives, intervention type and intervention procedures are selected according to the intervention score. The third stage of the model, called as the preparation of the status report and inventory, involves information on the current state of the window, the diagnostic methods used, and possible intervention alternatives. In the identification of deterioration in windows, on-site non-destructive diagnostic methods were examined within the scope of the model. In the study, it is decided to use internal and external observations and to make crack measurements and alignment checks when necessary. The proposed model is limited to windows only, although it could be used with all facade components. The model was applied to six windows in total by choosing two windows from three frame types in an education building in Istanbul, where wooden, PVC, and aluminum framed windows are used. The data of the aluminum-framed window were shared within the scope of the article. It is observed that physical effects and usage errors affect the service life and performance of the window in terms of the effects of environmental and human-induced factors on windows’ deterioration. The conclusion was that deteriorations in the examined aluminum-framed window affect the aesthetic, thermal, air, and water performances of windows. In conclusion, an expert can obtain results of condition assessment swiftly, completely, and numerically by filling out the checklists in the program prepared during data collection and analysis stages if the proposed model is used. The model is designed to create an inventory by recording the status of buildings’ components that require maintenance such as windows during usage. This should provide data for studies on the types and causes of deterioration in building elements. The developed proposal of the “decision support model”, should raise awareness of decision-makers, manufacturers, and designers for renovation, to protect user comfort, to reduce value losses in facade and window systems, to prevent performance losses resulting from erroneous interventions, and to protect national resources.

11.Neo-liberal Policies in Kayseri After 2000: Transformation of Public Lands Into Large Scale Urban Projects
Zeynep Ergen, Neşe Gurallar
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.02525  Pages 543 - 558
Türkiye’de kentler, neo-liberal yaklaşımın yönetime etkisi ile açıklanan neo-dirigisme (yeni devlet yapılanması) etkisi ile son 20 yıldır önemli değişim ve dönüşüm yaşamaktadır. Neo-liberal politikalar her coğrafyada farklı bir şekilde ortaya çıkmakta ve kentleri farklı şekillerde sermayeye sunmaktadır. Günümüzde kentler sermayenin birer aracı olarak sürekli değişim ve dönüşüm geçirmektedir. Kentlerde yaşanan bu değişim ve dönüşüm çoğunlukla yapılan plan değişiklikleri ile sağlanmaktadır. 2000’li yıllardan sonra yerel yönetimlerde yapılan bir dizi yasal değişiklik ile planlamanın bütünlüğü ilkesi değişime uğramış ve kent mekânına yapılan müdahaleler kolaylaştırılmıştır. Bununla birlikte yatırımcıların da kent mekânına yatırım yapması teşvik edilmiş, kent mekânında proje yatırım ve uygulamaları kolaylaştırılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Kayseri kenti özelinde gerçekleştirilen büyük ölçekli kentsel projelerin, neo-liberal politikalar bağlamında kentsel mekâna olan etkileri araştırılmaktadır. Kayseri kenti için hazırlanan 1986, 2006 ve 2017 yılı kent planlarındaki fiziksel değişimin incelenmesi ve bu değişimin ranta olan etkisinin arsa rayiç bedellerinde yaşanan değişimler üzerinden incelenmesi çalışmanın metodolojisini oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada, 1986 yılında yapılan planda önerilen kamu arazilerinin büyük ölçekli kentsel projeler yolu ile özelleştirilmesi ve kentsel mekânın değişimi ele alınmaktadır. Arsa rayiç bedelleri üzerinden yapılan inceleme sonucunda kentsel mekân değişip dönüşürken; aynı zamanda büyük ölçekli projeler ve kente yapılan yatırımların kentin bu bölgelerinde rant artışına neden olduğu çalışmanın temel bulguları arasındadır. Çalışmada, büyük ölçekli kentsel projelerin kentsel dönüşüm projelerini tetiklediği ortaya çıkan önemli sonuçlardan birisidir. İmar planı değişikliklerinin ve bununla ilişkili olarak kent planlamanın sermayenin stratejik aracı haline gelmesi ise çalışmanın diğer bir sonucudur.
In this research, an answer is sought to the question to what local governments’ role in the change and transformation of cities as a tool of capital after 2000 is, with the effect of neo-liberal urban policies and neo-dirigisme and the change of public administration understanding. Another question of the study is: what are the effects of the capital-oriented transformation of urban space on urban rent in cities planning, in accordance with neo-liberal policies, and what is the role of planning in this transformation. In this research, it is aimed to investigate the legal changes made for local governments with the effect of neo-liberal policies and neo-dirigisme in Turkey after 2000 and to investigate how local government authorities are transformed. In consideration of this research, in order to investigate how the large-scale urban projects realized in the city of Kayseri affect the urban space in the context of neo-liberal policies. It was aimed to investigate the effects of large-scale urban projects on rent that they were implemented in the city of Kayseri in accordance with neo-liberal policies by years after 2000, and it was aimed to investigate the relationship between urban transformation projects and large-scale urban projects, in maintaining the increase of urban rent and role of urban transformation projects. In order to better understand the transformation of public lands, the decisions are taken in the 1986 plan, the development plans of 2006 and 2017, and the current Google Earth aerial photographs which show the current situation were compared by using the plan comparison method. Evaluating the increase of rent method was used in order to investigate the effect of neo-liberal policies and large-scale urban projects on rent in Kayseri. In the study, the changes in the market value of the land and its rent increase were calculated by using the inflation calculation method. In the study, large-scale urban projects realized in the city center of Kayseri after 2000, as well as the transformation of public lands, and the transformation of its surroundings are handled. Evaluation of the increase of rent experienced in and around large-scale urban projects due to the current market values of the land are determined by the appraisal commissions every 4 years, the market values of the land in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 were calculated. When large-scale urban projects and their site selections are examined, it has been seen that the project areas are constructed on public lands. This change and transformation are provided by the changes in land use plans. The large-scale urban projects implemented as a result of development plan changes and with the intense construction pressure of its surroundings, it has begun to transform into high-rise (density) residential areas. Large-scale urban projects have caused a significant increase in the current market value of the land as of the years of construction, but this increase did not continue in the following years; however, with the existence of urban transformation projects in these areas and their surroundings or the emergence of new project areas, an increase in the current market values of the land and the rent is provided again. The understanding of neo-liberal municipalism which shaped by the new state structure and neo-dirigisme, build urban development on public lands. Along with large-scale urban project implementations, the announcement of urban transformation project areas around the project areas has been triggered, so the pressure on built environment production and construction has increased. One of the basic components in the creation of the urban built environment is the development plans and the planning changes. It becomes impossible to talk about the sustainability, continuity, and holistic planning approaches of planning with large-scale urban projects and the planning changes around them, and as a result, urban planning and architecture become a strategic tool of capital. Large-scale urban projects cause a serious increase in rent by the years they were built in the areas where they are located. The continuation of this increase could only be achieved with the urban transformation project areas announcement and urban transformation projects have become a tool to maintain the rent increase. This is the first study made specifically for Kayseri that utilizes the inflation calculation method for the evaluation of large-scale urban projects’ effect on the increase in rent that constitutes the original value of the study.

12.Approaches of Landscape Architects to Applications for the Use of Open and Green Spaces in Conditions of Covid-19 Pandemic
Sibel Mansuroğlu, Veysel Dağ, Ayşe Kalayci Önaç, Zerrin Söğüt, Tanay Bi&775;ri&775;şçi&775;
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.90699  Pages 559 - 573
Park, kent ormanları, günlük rekreasyon alanları, konut bahçeleri gibi alanları içeren açık ve yeşil alanlar mekânsal sistemi değiştirme görevini üstlenebilirler. Özellikle salgın hastalık dönemlerinde halkın doğaya özlemi giderek artmakta ve bu durum çeşitli toplumsal sorunların ortaya çıkmasına kadar varabilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, halkın kullanımına sunulan açık ve yeşil alanların planlanma, tasarım, uygulama ve sürdürülebilirliğinde önemli görevler yüklenen peyzaj mimarlarının salgın hastalıklar sürecinde açık ve yeşil alanların kullanımı ve bu konuda yapılan uygulamalara yönelik görüşleri Covid-19 salgını örneğinde anket aracılığı ile ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Dört yüz peyzaj mimarı ile yapılan anket çalışması sonucu salgın hastalıklarla mücadelede toplum sağlığını desteklemek amacıyla açık ve yeşil alanların kullanımının gerekli olduğu ancak, kullanımın dezenfeksiyon, fiziksel mesafe, kent mobilyalarının kullanımının yeniden ele alınması gibi çeşitli önlemler gerektirdiği üzerinde durulmuştur. Salgının yayılmasını önlemede alınan önlemlerin sosyomekânsal sonuçlarının anlaşılması ile çalışma ve yaşam kalıplarını birleştiren, ortaya çıkan yeni yaşam tarzları ile ilgili kavramların belirlenmesi çalışmadan elde edilecek faydalar arasındadır. Elde edilen bulgulara dayanılarak peyzaj mimarlarının kentsel yeşil alanları doğa ile uyumlu olarak tasarlayabilmeleri ve halk sağlığını dikkate alabilmeleri için doğa, doğal etkenler ve sağlık ilişkileri konusunda tecrübe kazanmaları gerektiği ifade edilebilir.
Open and green areas, including areas such as parks, urban forests, daily recreation areas, residential gardens, can take on the task of changing the spatial system. Especially during epidemic/pandemic periods, people’s longing for nature gradually increases and this situation can lead to the emergence of various social problems. This study tried to put forward the views of Landscape Architects, who undertake important duties in the planning, design, implementation and sustainability of open and green spaces offered to the public, on the use of open and green spaces during the pandemic process and applications made in this regard through a survey. As a result of the survey conducted with 400 Landscape Architects, it was emphasized that the use of open and green areas is necessary in order to support public health during the pandemic period, but the necessity of various measures such as disinfection, physical distance, and re-handling of the use of urban furniture has been acknowledged. Understanding the socio-spatial consequences of the measures taken to prevent the spread of the epidemic and determining new concepts related to lifestyles that combine working and life patterns and arising from new spatial environments are among the benefits to be gained from the study. Based on the findings obtained through this study, it can be stated that Landscape Architects need to gain experience in nature, natural factors and health relations in order to be able to design urban green spaces in harmony with nature and with consideration to public health.

13.The Effect of the Landmark on the Symmetry Axis to the Spatial Legibility of the Visually Impaired
Özlem Belir
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2021.33269  Pages 574 - 582
Görme engelli bireyin (görmeyen ve az gören), gören bir kişi gibi, nerede olduğunu ve nereye gitmekte olduğunu bilmesi konforunu yaşaması, dolayısıyla bağımsız hareket edebilmesi gereklidir. Bireyin bağımsızlığı ancak bulunduğu mekânı algılaması ile ilgilidir. Mekânı okuyabilen gören ya da görmeyen her kişi bağımsızdır. Bağımsız olan her kişi için içinde bulunduğu mekân ve çevre erişilebilirdir. Bu çalışmada, Edirne’deki, 1484-1488 yılları arasında inşa edilmiş Sultan İkinci Bayezid Külliyesi’nin, halen sağlık müzesi olarak kullanılan Darüşşifa bölümünün, mekân dizimi yöntemi ile eksenel hat analizi ve görünür alan analizleri yapılmış ve sayısal verilere ulaşılmıştır. Mekân dizim yöntemi ile elde edilen değerler aynı mekânda bir grup mimarlık öğrencisi ile yapılan atölye çalışmasının çıktıları ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Duyusal potansiyelleri zengin olan tarihi mekânda gerçekleştirilen atölye çalışmasında, akustik, koku ve dokunsal algı ile elde edilen bilgi bütününün çözümlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Tasarım sürecinde, görünmezlik boyutunun uygulanabilme deneyimi olarak açıklayabileceğimiz atölye çalışmasında, çoklu duyularımızla mekânı okumak, biçimlendirmek ile ilgili farklı deneyimler yaşanmıştır. Öğrenciler, oluşturdukları yeni tasarımlar ve tespit ettikleri sorunların çözüm önerilerini ortaya koymuşlardır. Amaç, çoklu duyularla oluşan bilişsel haritaların, okunabilirliğe hangi ölçüde etki ettiğinin küçük bir örnekle ortaya konulmasıdır. Okunabilirliğe etki eden parametrelerden olan plan şemasının ve yapısal-duyusal işaret ögelerinin bulunduğu yerlerin görme engellilerin algılamasına nasıl etki ettiği araştırılmıştır. Simetri eksenindeki ve eksen dışındaki işaret ögesi yerleşiminin, görme engellinin plan okumasına doğrudan etki ettiği görülmektedir. Simetrik plan şemasına sahip binalarda işaret ögelerinin yerinin görme engelli kişinin planı algılayabilmesi açısından önemi ortaya konulmuştur.
In the present study, the effects of the places where structural and sensory landmarks are found on the perception of space by the visually impaired were investigated on an example. In a symmetrical plan scheme, the fountain, which is a structural and sensory landmark for the visually impaired, is located at the intersection point in the x and y coordinate plane, makes it difficult for these people to understand the fiction of the space, prevent them from forming the plan scheme in their minds and thus making the scheme remembered and known. It is the demonstration of the extent to which cognitive maps formed with multiple senses in students in historical place affect legibility with a small example. It was investigated how the plan scheme and the places where the structural-sensory landmarks, which are among the parameters affecting the legibility, affect the perception of the visually impaired. In the study, the outputs of a workshop attended by students studying architecture at different universities were used. In the workshop, which we can explain as the experience of applying the invisibility dimension in the design process, different experiences were practiced about spatial legibility and shaping the space with multiple senses. The hospital section of the Sultan II Bayezid Complex was chosen as the experimental area of the workshop. In the workshop, after sharing and discussing the works and projects of some groups with Architect Carlos Mourao Pereira, the idea method was created to analyse the connectivity, integration and comprehensibility of a part of the historical space with a large number of sensory data within the scope of spatial syntax. This idea was developed during the compilation of the workshop results and has been the subject of this article. With the help of the Depthmap program, maps of the hospital section of the Complex were created and axial line analysis and the connectivity, integrity and intelligibility data of the space were examined. The results obtained were compared with opinions and productions of the students. In this study, axial line analysis and visibility graph analysis of the Darüşşifa section of the Sultan II. Bayezid Complex were analysed by means of the space syntax method and numerical data were obtained. A comparison of the findings and observations made by a group of students in the same place was made with the data obtained from the workshop conducted with architecture students. The students in the selected group experienced the space for the first time, using the blindfold, without using the sense of sight, and then drew the plan of the space where they tried to recognize it through temperature, acoustic differences and sense of touch. In fact, it is seen in the plan that the structure, which has a hexagonal plan, is perceived as an oval by the students using the blindfold. Architect Carlos Mourao Pereira emphasized that it is a very interesting point for students to perceive a non-oval space as oval, stating that oval spaces are difficult to perceive for the visually impaired. According to Pereira, if a space is designed for the visually impaired, the fountain, which can be defined as a sensory landmark, should not be located in the middle. In order to make numerical verification of Pereira’s determinations, axial maps were prepared in the Depthmap program to see the effect of the hospital section of the Külliye on human movement and the intensity of use. To reach the values in the Depthmap program, the fountain is placed to the left of the middle axis of the building with a symmetrical plan. Looking at the analysis results, it was determined that if the fountain is shifted from the middle axis, the number of axes with high connectivity value increases according to the original plan. The same increase was observed in the integration analysis. There was an increase in axles with high integration values. In this study, the importance of the location of the landmarks in buildings with symmetrical plan schemes for the visually impaired person to perceive the plan was revealed. Due to the fully symmetrical and central landmark, the person cannot determine the starting and the ending point, so a plan scheme cannot be formed in the mind. It is seen that the landmark placement on and off the axis of symmetry directly affects the plan reading of the visually impaired. The importance of the location of the landmarks in buildings with a symmetrical plan scheme has been demonstrated in terms of the visually impaired person to perceive the plan scheme.



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