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A Decision Support Model Proposal for the Detection and Evaluation of Deterioration in Window Systems [Megaron]
Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 523-542 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2021.76402  

A Decision Support Model Proposal for the Detection and Evaluation of Deterioration in Window Systems

Emine Merve Okumuş1, Özlem Eren2
1Department of Architecture, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey
2Department of Architecture, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul, Turkey

Performance, endurance, and aesthetic value losses occur due to environment, human, and time factors in windows, which is a significant component of buildings in terms of function and aesthetics. The maintenance planning of windows should be conducted on time during the usage phase as well as accurately implementing the decisions taken at the design stage so that the windows can serve for a long time. If maintenance and repairs are not performed on time, directly or indirectly, deteriorations that will decrease the performance of buildings and products’ lifespan will occur. These issues will affect the performance and aesthetic properties of windows and facades. A systematic approach that ensures effective use of timely accurate identification, analysis, and intervention regarding the malfunctions encountered in windows during occupancy is presented. The proposed model that will be used by experts is aimed to prevent erroneous maintenance practices, protect user comfort, reduce usage costs, and contribute to the national economy by conserving resources via a decision support model for the deterioration of windows. The decision support model that is developed consists of three main stages, namely condition assessment, determination of possible intervention alternatives, and preparation of the condition report and inventory, and a support database is created to provide data for these stages. The first stage of the model, also known as the condition assessment stage, consists of three phases: data collection, condition analysis, and assessment. General information about the building and window are recorded during the data collection phase. In the second phase, i.e., condition analysis, the deterioration intensity and the area of disturbance will be determined after detecting malfunctions in windows. In the condition assessment phase, deterioration’s severity is determined using NEN 2767 method, while deterioration’s scores in the component are calculated by using the cardinal scale method. The second stage of the model, which is known as the determination of possible intervention alternatives, consists of four steps: possible intervention alternatives, intervention priority scores, intervention scores, and appropriate intervention alternatives. Possible intervention alternatives are prepared according to intervention lists created in the support databases. In determining the intervention priority scores (the second step), intervention priority score was given by evaluating the effects of deterioration on the three parameters, i.e., aesthetics, performance, and strength, on a 5-point scale according to the type of deterioration and the component in which it is located. In the last step of determining the possible intervention alternatives, intervention type and intervention procedures are selected according to the intervention score. The third stage of the model, called as the preparation of the status report and inventory, involves information on the current state of the window, the diagnostic methods used, and possible intervention alternatives. In the identification of deterioration in windows, on-site non-destructive diagnostic methods were examined within the scope of the model. In the study, it is decided to use internal and external observations and to make crack measurements and alignment checks when necessary. The proposed model is limited to windows only, although it could be used with all facade components. The model was applied to six windows in total by choosing two windows from three frame types in an education building in Istanbul, where wooden, PVC, and aluminum framed windows are used. The data of the aluminum-framed window were shared within the scope of the article. It is observed that physical effects and usage errors affect the service life and performance of the window in terms of the effects of environmental and human-induced factors on windows’ deterioration. The conclusion was that deteriorations in the examined aluminum-framed window affect the aesthetic, thermal, air, and water performances of windows. In conclusion, an expert can obtain results of condition assessment swiftly, completely, and numerically by filling out the checklists in the program prepared during data collection and analysis stages if the proposed model is used. The model is designed to create an inventory by recording the status of buildings’ components that require maintenance such as windows during usage. This should provide data for studies on the types and causes of deterioration in building elements. The developed proposal of the “decision support model”, should raise awareness of decision-makers, manufacturers, and designers for renovation, to protect user comfort, to reduce value losses in facade and window systems, to prevent performance losses resulting from erroneous interventions, and to protect national resources.

Keywords: condition assessment, decision support model; deterioration; occupancy; window systems.


Pencere Sistemlerindeki Bozulmaların Tespiti ve Değerlendirilmesine Yönelik Bir Karar Destek Modeli Önerisi

Emine Merve Okumuş1, Özlem Eren2
1Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf Üniversitesi Mimarlık ve Tasarım Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, İstanbul
2Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, İstanbul

Yapıların işlevsel ve estetik açıdan önemli bir bileşeni olan pencere sistemlerinde çevresel, insan kaynaklı ve zamana bağlı etkenlerle birlikte performans, dayanım ve estetik değer kayıpları görülmektedir. Pencerelerin uzun süreli hizmet verebilmeleri için tasarım aşamasında alınan kararların doğru bir şekilde uygulandıktan sonra kullanım aşamasında bakım planlamalarının zamanında yapılması gerekmektedir. Bakım ve onarımları zamanında yapılmayan pencerelerde görülecek bozulmalar doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak cephenin performansını etkilemektedir. Çalışmanın amacı, kullanım sürecinde pencere sistemlerinde karşılaşılan bozulmalara zamanında doğru teşhis, analiz ve müdahale ile pencere sistemlerinin etkin kullanımını sağlayacak karar destek modeli geliştirmektir. Geliştirilen karar destek modeli; durum değerlendirmesi, olası müdahale alternatiflerinin belirlenmesi, durum raporu ve envanterinin hazırlanması olarak üç ana aşamadan ve bu aşamalara veri sağlayan destek veri tabanından oluşmaktadır. Modelin uygulanabilirliğinin ölçülebilmesi için İstanbul’da bir eğitim binasının alüminyum çerçeveli penceresinde model uygulanmıştır. Uzman kişilerin kullanımına uygun düzenlenen tablo sistemiyle durum değerlendirme işlemleri hızlı, eksiksiz ve sayısal olarak elde edilebilmektedir. Pencere sistemlerinin yaşam süresince durumlarının kayıt altına alınmasıyla envanter oluşturulması ve karşılaşılan bozulma türlerine ve sebeplerine yönelik çalışmalara veri sağlaması planlanmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında geliştirilen karar destek model önerisi ile karar verici kişilerin, üreticilerin, tasarımcıların ve uygulayıcıların yenilemeye yönelik bilinçlendirilmesi, kullanıcı konforunun korunması, cephe ve pencere sistemlerindeki değer kayıplarının azaltılması, hatalı müdahale işlemlerinden kaynaklı performans kayıplarının önlenmesi ve ulusal kaynakların korunması hedeflenmektedir. Modelin ileride yazılıma dönüştürülmesi ve bozulmalarla ilgili görsel ve yazılı bilgilerle desteklendiğinde karar verici kişiler tarafından da kullanılabilir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Bozulma, durum değerlendirmesi karar destek modeli; kullanım süreci; pencere sistemleri.


Emine Merve Okumuş, Özlem Eren. A Decision Support Model Proposal for the Detection and Evaluation of Deterioration in Window Systems. Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 523-542

Corresponding Author: Emine Merve Okumuş, Türkiye


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