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Neo-liberal Policies in Kayseri After 2000: Transformation of Public Lands Into Large Scale Urban Projects [Megaron]
Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 543-558 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2021.02525  

Neo-liberal Policies in Kayseri After 2000: Transformation of Public Lands Into Large Scale Urban Projects

Zeynep Ergen1, Neşe Gurallar2
1Erciyes University Architecture Faculty, Department of Architecture, Kayseri
2Gazi University Architecture Faculty, Department of Architecture, Ankara

In this research, an answer is sought to the question to what local governments’ role in the change and transformation of cities as a tool of capital after 2000 is, with the effect of neo-liberal urban policies and neo-dirigisme and the change of public administration understanding. Another question of the study is: what are the effects of the capital-oriented transformation of urban space on urban rent in cities planning, in accordance with neo-liberal policies, and what is the role of planning in this transformation. In this research, it is aimed to investigate the legal changes made for local governments with the effect of neo-liberal policies and neo-dirigisme in Turkey after 2000 and to investigate how local government authorities are transformed. In consideration of this research, in order to investigate how the large-scale urban projects realized in the city of Kayseri affect the urban space in the context of neo-liberal policies. It was aimed to investigate the effects of large-scale urban projects on rent that they were implemented in the city of Kayseri in accordance with neo-liberal policies by years after 2000, and it was aimed to investigate the relationship between urban transformation projects and large-scale urban projects, in maintaining the increase of urban rent and role of urban transformation projects. In order to better understand the transformation of public lands, the decisions are taken in the 1986 plan, the development plans of 2006 and 2017, and the current Google Earth aerial photographs which show the current situation were compared by using the plan comparison method. Evaluating the increase of rent method was used in order to investigate the effect of neo-liberal policies and large-scale urban projects on rent in Kayseri. In the study, the changes in the market value of the land and its rent increase were calculated by using the inflation calculation method. In the study, large-scale urban projects realized in the city center of Kayseri after 2000, as well as the transformation of public lands, and the transformation of its surroundings are handled. Evaluation of the increase of rent experienced in and around large-scale urban projects due to the current market values of the land are determined by the appraisal commissions every 4 years, the market values of the land in 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, and 2018 were calculated. When large-scale urban projects and their site selections are examined, it has been seen that the project areas are constructed on public lands. This change and transformation are provided by the changes in land use plans. The large-scale urban projects implemented as a result of development plan changes and with the intense construction pressure of its surroundings, it has begun to transform into high-rise (density) residential areas. Large-scale urban projects have caused a significant increase in the current market value of the land as of the years of construction, but this increase did not continue in the following years; however, with the existence of urban transformation projects in these areas and their surroundings or the emergence of new project areas, an increase in the current market values of the land and the rent is provided again. The understanding of neo-liberal municipalism which shaped by the new state structure and neo-dirigisme, build urban development on public lands. Along with large-scale urban project implementations, the announcement of urban transformation project areas around the project areas has been triggered, so the pressure on built environment production and construction has increased. One of the basic components in the creation of the urban built environment is the development plans and the planning changes. It becomes impossible to talk about the sustainability, continuity, and holistic planning approaches of planning with large-scale urban projects and the planning changes around them, and as a result, urban planning and architecture become a strategic tool of capital. Large-scale urban projects cause a serious increase in rent by the years they were built in the areas where they are located. The continuation of this increase could only be achieved with the urban transformation project areas announcement and urban transformation projects have become a tool to maintain the rent increase. This is the first study made specifically for Kayseri that utilizes the inflation calculation method for the evaluation of large-scale urban projects’ effect on the increase in rent that constitutes the original value of the study.

Keywords: Kayseri, large-scale urban projects; neo-dirigisme; neo-liberalism; rent.


Kayseri’de 2000 Yılı Sonrası Neo-liberal Politikalar: Kamu Arazilerinin Büyük Ölçekli Kentsel Projelere Dönüşümü

Zeynep Ergen1, Neşe Gurallar2
1Erciyes Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Kayseri
2Gazi Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Ankara

Türkiye’de kentler, neo-liberal yaklaşımın yönetime etkisi ile açıklanan neo-dirigisme (yeni devlet yapılanması) etkisi ile son 20 yıldır önemli değişim ve dönüşüm yaşamaktadır. Neo-liberal politikalar her coğrafyada farklı bir şekilde ortaya çıkmakta ve kentleri farklı şekillerde sermayeye sunmaktadır. Günümüzde kentler sermayenin birer aracı olarak sürekli değişim ve dönüşüm geçirmektedir. Kentlerde yaşanan bu değişim ve dönüşüm çoğunlukla yapılan plan değişiklikleri ile sağlanmaktadır. 2000’li yıllardan sonra yerel yönetimlerde yapılan bir dizi yasal değişiklik ile planlamanın bütünlüğü ilkesi değişime uğramış ve kent mekânına yapılan müdahaleler kolaylaştırılmıştır. Bununla birlikte yatırımcıların da kent mekânına yatırım yapması teşvik edilmiş, kent mekânında proje yatırım ve uygulamaları kolaylaştırılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Kayseri kenti özelinde gerçekleştirilen büyük ölçekli kentsel projelerin, neo-liberal politikalar bağlamında kentsel mekâna olan etkileri araştırılmaktadır. Kayseri kenti için hazırlanan 1986, 2006 ve 2017 yılı kent planlarındaki fiziksel değişimin incelenmesi ve bu değişimin ranta olan etkisinin arsa rayiç bedellerinde yaşanan değişimler üzerinden incelenmesi çalışmanın metodolojisini oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada, 1986 yılında yapılan planda önerilen kamu arazilerinin büyük ölçekli kentsel projeler yolu ile özelleştirilmesi ve kentsel mekânın değişimi ele alınmaktadır. Arsa rayiç bedelleri üzerinden yapılan inceleme sonucunda kentsel mekân değişip dönüşürken; aynı zamanda büyük ölçekli projeler ve kente yapılan yatırımların kentin bu bölgelerinde rant artışına neden olduğu çalışmanın temel bulguları arasındadır. Çalışmada, büyük ölçekli kentsel projelerin kentsel dönüşüm projelerini tetiklediği ortaya çıkan önemli sonuçlardan birisidir. İmar planı değişikliklerinin ve bununla ilişkili olarak kent planlamanın sermayenin stratejik aracı haline gelmesi ise çalışmanın diğer bir sonucudur.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Bü, yük ölçekli kentsel projeler; Kayseri; neo-dirigisme; neo-liberalizm; rant.


Zeynep Ergen, Neşe Gurallar. Neo-liberal Policies in Kayseri After 2000: Transformation of Public Lands Into Large Scale Urban Projects. Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 543-558

Corresponding Author: Zeynep Ergen, Türkiye


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