E-ISSN 1309-6915
Volume: 19 Issue: 2
Year: 2024

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Megaron: 19 (2)
Volume: 19  Issue: 2 - 2024
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1.Front Matter

Pages I - V

2.Rumeli Railway estates in the historical peninsula in the light of archival documents; Sirkeci example
Gülen Sipahioğlu, Can Şakir Binan
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.38801  Pages 91 - 109
This study aims to examine the impact of the Rumeli Railway, built by the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the 19th century, on the transformation of the urban space in the Sirkeci District by evaluating the cooperation and conflicts between the state, foreign investors, and local actors and the political, social, and urban spatial effects of the construction process. The Industrial Revolution began a process of major changes and reforms across the world. These changes led to radical reform worldwide while closing and opening an era in economic, social, and technological terms. The revolution first started in the UK and then spread to Northern Europe and North America. Steam-powered machines and vehicles are among the reasons for the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The discovery of steam-powered trains made the construction of railways essential. The Ottoman Empire also made use of this innovation and built the Rumeli Railway in the second half of the 19th century. As the majority of the railways were built by the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, the Rumeli Railway was funded by foreign investors; many written sources describing the processes of obtaining their privileges, plan projects describing the construction processes, and many official correspondences describing the events during the construction process are available in the Turkish Republic Presidency State Ottoman Archives (OA). This study examines the expropriation processes carried out in the historical peninsula in the Sirkeci District during the construction of the Rumeli Railway in the light of archival documents.

3.Spatial dimensions of literature: Ethnographic codes for the Prag’da Günler story by Nedim Gürsel
Kübra Kalkışım Sağlam, Serap Durmuş Öztürk
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.56667  Pages 110 - 122
The city, with its social, cultural, physical, and geographical features, can be represented narratively on the axis of interpretations and fictions of reality or imagination. The ethnographic codes of city narratives are physical, structural, and social. They represent the city in various ways and contribute to knowledge in architecture. The research question of this article is, 'Could architecture be reinterpreted through ethnographic narratives of the city?' This question points to a vibrant field of study that investigates the importance and originality of the article and the spatial dimensions of literature. The article addresses a more nuanced perspective on relationships between travel writing and ethnography from a literary approach to narrative analysis and architecture. The article analyses the architectural elements in a
literary narrative through qualitative research. It aims to ethnographically examine the story of Prag’da Günler, which emphasizes a European city. Karen O’Reilly’s ethnographic method is used for the ethnographic analysis of this story. The ethnographic approach also aims at a certain understanding and appreciation of the spatial dimensions of the literature in the case of Nedim Gürsel. As a result, seeing the city as a writing activity at the intersection of architecture
and narrative makes the potential of narratives viable in the reproduction of the city.

4.Places of memory and place attachment: A study at the neighborhood scale in Istanbul
Eda Erkan, Aslı Sungur, Çiğdem Canbay Türkyılmaz
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.63239  Pages 123 - 137
Places of memory are often locations where individuals connect with their own life stories. In this respect, places of memory can strengthen people's attachment to place. However, due to various reasons, some places of memory are lost as a result of rapid and wide-ranging transformations in the city, leading to interruptions in the continuity of memory. Beginning with the question, "Do rapid and wide-ranging changes in the city affect individuals' places of memory and place attachment?", this study examines the changes experienced in Istanbul through existing and lost places of memory at the neighborhood scale.Three field studies were conducted in the Kuzguncuk Neighborhood, Küçükyalı District, and Postane Neighborhood, located on the Anatolian side of Istanbul, each with distinct physical and demographic structures related to the sea. A total of 150 respondents, fifty from each area, answered survey questions. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. The effects of changes triggered by land fill in coastal areas of Istanbul over time have also been observed in the residents' places of memory. The most mentioned places of memory include coastal and sea-related areas, parks and gardens, religious buildings, shopping buildings, educational buildings, transportation buildings, cafes and restaurants, cultural buildings, and accommodation buildings. Significant relationships emerged between place attachment values and variables such as duration of residence, educational status, and employment status, varying across different areas. However, no significant relationship was found between place attachment values and age or gender across the three areas. Among the three areas, the conservation zone of Kuzguncuk experienced the least change and showed the highest place attachment values.

5.A systematic approach to sound and spatial experience studies: Detection of the key concepts and themes
Emir Çekmecelioğlu, Çiğdem Polatoğlu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.04307  Pages 138 - 151
The research examines studies about the process of spatial experience and highlights aural interactions. In this sense, the goal is to assess and describe the expanding corpus of literature in the field of sound and spatial experience and to provide a framework for further investigation. Key concepts and themes that emerge at the intersection of space, sound, and experience are examined through a comprehensive review. Bibliometric research techniques are applied with a methodological framework in accordance with the process of detecting themes. Web of Science database was used as the raw data source, and scientific mapping and analysis of the obtained data were performed using VOSviewer. PRISMA guidelines were utilized for the study's document selection and reporting processes. Systematic scanning and selection processes resulted in the collection of 416 documents. The procedure of detecting themes led to the identification of 13 major themes and 136 key concepts that emerged. Essentially, it was discovered that the "soundscape" was the most significant concept and theme in the field of study. Furthermore, assessments and inferences were conducted on all other key concepts and themes. The major components of the field, concentrated areas, and potential development areas have been discovered through the analysis of conceptual relationship networks. The findings will provide future researchers an opportunity to comprehend how the research field has developed, as well as a chance to learn more about new potential fields of study and enhance their research.

6.Predicting the urban sound environment pleasantness with the soundscape approach by fuzzy SMRGT method: A case study in Diyarbakır Suriçi
Derya Çakır Aydın, Sevtap Yılmaz Demirkale
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.76736  Pages 152 - 160
In the soundscape approach, environmental sounds are not considered noise, but as a source and as a component of the spatial planning and design process. It is necessary to evaluate the soundscape in urban spaces in a multifaceted and holistic manner, together with many factors such as physical, social, cultural, psychological, architectural, and so on. In this study, it is aimed to develop an estimation model that will allow the stages that take a long time to progress faster and more systematically in the multifaceted evaluation of the sound environment pleasantness levels of the users in urban spaces with the soundscape approach. For the model's quantitative data, sound quality metrics (loudness, sharpness, roughness) obtained from binaural sound recordings were used. The fuzzy logic estimation model is constructed by using Simple Membership Functions and the Fuzzy Rules Generation Technique (SMRGT) method, considering the characteristics of users and the survey area. In the model, it was possible to convey user experiences, and a simple approach that could be expressed numerically and understood was obtained with the fiction created with verbal concepts. Flexibility is allowed to diversify quantitative and qualitative metrics. The model has been tested with the case study performed with the users. As a result of the study, a close relationship was determined between the model outputs and the subjective data of the users. The efficiency ratios of other variables (age, gender, reasons for coming to the region, frequency of visit, duration of stay) belonging to users not included in the model were also determined. In this study, it has been revealed that the level of pleasantness of the sound environment in urban spaces should be evaluated not only in terms of quantitative data but also on the characteristics of the spaces and users.

7.Learning from Swindon Railway Town: A Comparative Study with Alsancak Railway Campus
Şeyma Seyrek, Elvan Ebru Omay Polat
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.21208  Pages 161 - 183
The railway system, considered an industrial heritage today, emerged in England as a means of transportation and spread rapidly worldwide in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. As in other industrial building types, the advancement of technology and the emergence of new systems for railway structures have been a threat; since the twentieth century's latter half, many railways in the industrial and mining areas have been closed, and the disused buildings have faced the risk of rapid extinction. The deliberate destruction of railway structures in the 1960s, symbolized by the demolition of the Euston Arch in England, started the debate on railway heritage, first in England and then in the world. This study focuses on Swindon Railway Town, a highly significant industrial settlement of its era in England, as an exemplar of railway heritage conservation due to preservation efforts since the 1980s, including various restoration and reused railway buildings. It is an early and important example of both railway construction and conservation practice. This article aims to investigate Swindon as a potential conservation model for the Alsancak Railway Campus, considering their shared similarities in era, scale, and style, through a comparative study focusing on cultural significance and conservation status. These two railway areas were selected as case studies because they
showcase the architectural diversity of railway buildings, sharing similar architectural features. Both railway campuses were built by the British as the first and early examples of railways in their countries. They were encountering similar problems such as becoming dysfunctional due to developments and changes in railway technology. The research methodology employed in this study comprises archival research and on-site visits to the railway town of Swindon and
the Alsancak Railway Campus. Beginning with the history and significance of Swindon railway town, the study systematically examines the buildings that formed a planned railway town. Secondly, an overview of the railway heritage conservation process in Swindon is provided by highlighting the conservation area status, its management plan, and systematically analyzing the conservation status and transformation process of the historical railway structures. It is followed by a comparative analysis between Swindon Railway Town and Alsancak Railway Campus. Overall, this study presents an evaluation and potential for the conservation of railway heritage areas through a comparative analysis.

8.Investigation of the determinants of user satisfaction in social mass housings in Edirne during the COVID-19 period
Onur Şuta, Aslı Zencirkıran
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.74050  Pages 184 - 203
The pandemic, with increased time spent at home, has heightened the importance of user satisfaction as needs have evolved. We aim to evaluate user satisfaction in COVID-19-era state-built mass housing and contribute to mass housing design literature.
The study focused on social housing in Edirne, analyzing architectural observations, surveys, demographic information, house characteristics, and spatial adequacy. Correlation and regression analyses explored satisfaction relationships, factors affecting satisfaction, and their influence. User satisfaction is influenced by demographic characteristics, with insufficient living spaces due to the pandemic causing structural changes. Structural, environmental, interior, location, and access features significantly impact satisfaction, with structural features having the most significant impact.
Maximizing thermal comfort, ensuring high resistance to disasters, and maintaining good physical condition are the key factors that positively affect user satisfaction. However, poorquality sound insulation materials and craftsmanship standards decrease satisfaction levels. It has been found that users prefer houses located near the city center. Additionally, users consider the environmental and green spaces of the house more important than its interior features.
Satisfaction with houses is greatly influenced by their structural and environmental features. It has been recognized that green areas and social spaces are essential and should be increased. Furthermore, flexible space planning has been emphasized to ensure the house can adapt to changing living conditions.

9.Resilience of rural cultural landscapes: A case study of hazelnut in the Giresun-Ordu subregion
Seda Duman, Berna Dikçınar Sel
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.67366  Pages 204 - 218
This article examines the resilience of the rural cultural landscape (RCL) shaped by hazelnut production in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Türkiye. Addressing the cultural landscapes shaped by agricultural production with their economic dimensions constitutes the original aspect of the article. In the study, the resilience of RCLs is discussed in the context of the socioecological resilience approach. The main aim is to evaluate the resilience of the RCL of the region by identifying causal relationships between socio-cultural, economic, and institutional dynamics in the Giresun-Ordu Subregion.
In the study, historical profiling, which enables the provision of context-specific detailed information, has been adopted. Within the scope of the article, the effects of the historical change and development of socio-cultural, economic, and institutional dynamics in the Giresun-Ordu sub-region on the RCL of the region are analyzed comparatively in three periods. This comparison has been carried out through agricultural production mode-methodeconomy, social structure and culture, and physical space features. The changing, unchanging, and evolving characteristics of the rural cultural landscape of the region were identified.
As a result of the method followed and the evaluations made, migration and demographic changes in the region have brought about adaptations in the agricultural production style, method, and economy. These adaptations have transformed the way of life by making migration permanent and continuous. It is possible to say that the rural cultural landscape of the region, which can continue its traditional economic and social structure by adapting to all these changes and transformations, is resilient.

10.Diverse geographies of urban crisis: A comparative analysis of Egypt, India and Türkiye
Mehmet Penpecioğlu, Mustafa Kemal Bayırbağ
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.87846  Pages 219 - 230
The article concentrates on the reasons behind, and consequences of, the post-2008 urban crises experienced in the southern geographies of capitalism. It does so through a comparative analysis of three cases, namely India, Egypt, and Türkiye. The methodological approach in the article attempts to expand the scope of urban politics research to bring divergent cases into conversation. We argue that loosely defined, similar and different causes and/or repeated outcomes of urban crises across diverse cases could form an appropriate base for research in urban politics. The article brings the politics of redistribution in three cases/countries under the spotlight, focusing on four dimensions of the politics of redistribution: (dis)possession; exploitation; commons; and representation. While the last two dimensions dominated the scene in Egypt, in the case of Türkiye, it was about the politics of representation and exploitation. In India, the politics of (dis)possession and commons seem to constitute the center of urban politics. Furthermore, as the comparative analysis of the countries reveals, the role of the state and its historical and spatial configurations have played a strategic role in the formation of the politics of distribution. The comparative analysis also indicates that the variegated neoliberal urban policies have become successful or have failed in containing urban crises. The reasons for the success/failure in urban policies depend on three major factors: (1) the spatio-institutional design of the urban policy-making mechanisms; (2) the historical pattern of urbanization; (3) the role of the nation-state, especially the central government, in the politics of redistribution.

11.Spatial transformation of agriculture in urban-rural relations: Torbalı district (İzmir)
Kübra Alğın Demir, Neslihan Karataş
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.65642  Pages 231 - 244
In the 19th century, with the development of industrialisation, there has been a process of change and transformation from rural to urban areas. In fact, with industrialisation, the employment opportunities of the city in the fight against poverty have taken its place as one of the main factors accelerating rural-urban migration. Increasing migration and the fact that the city has exceeded its current carrying capacity have created the need for spatial expansion towards the periphery. Globalisation and competition in world markets, which became dominant in the 1980s, have been identified as another important factor that has increased urban-rural occupation.
The aim of this study is to prevent the destruction of agricultural areas, which are of primary importance for vital activities, in the urban-rural relationship and to raise awareness on this issue. Within the scope of the study, Torbalı district of Izmir was selected as the sample area. Geographical Information Systems and plans of Torbalı district at different scales were used as a method. In this direction, the aim is to monitor the impact of urban development trends in Torbalı on agricultural areas in temporal (1990, 2000, 2012 and 2022) and spatial terms. Consequently, it has been established how much of the urban settlement areas in the Torbalı district, particularly the development and pressure on agriculturally important areas, and how much of the agricultural lands have been destroyed by this urbanisation pressure and what kind of land use type they have transformed into. In addition, in light of the data obtained, strategies have been developed to prevent this urbanization pressure on agricultural land.

12.A method proposal for determining bicycle paths in cities: The case of Denizli (Turkey)
Veysel Dağ, Sibel Mansuroğlu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.78045  Pages 245 - 258
Despite technological advancements, bicycle transportation has a historical role that has endured and shaped human transportation history. For effective transportation with non-motorized vehicles, it is essential to identify infrastructure opportunities and understand the impacts of the current situation on transportation behaviours. The study area is the Merkezefendi and Pamukkale districts of Denizli city center. Four different interrelated methods (Landscape Analysis, Delphi Technique, Questionnaire Application, and AHP; Multi-Criteria Factor and Weighting) were used in the research. The research consists of four main parts: data collection, evaluation, analysis, and results. Thus, a method proposal allowing for a comprehensive evaluation for establishing a bicycle lane network in the city center of Denizli was aimed. To achieve this, the natural, cultural, and socio-economic characteristics of the selected districts of Merkezefendi and Pamukkale, chosen as the research area, were highlighted. Opinions of employees in various institutions, individuals volunteering in relevant non-governmental organizations (to use Delphi Technique with 15 experts), and the public (by questionnaire with 863 people) were gathered to develop a bicycle lane network proposal using a holistic planning approach. As a result, a comprehensive set of criteria was evaluated, and inclusiveness was applied extensively. In contrast to other studies, the factors influencing bicycle use in Denizli city center were not limited to literature reviews only but involved a Delphi technique with expert opinions, a survey with the views of bicycle users in the city center, and the researcher's experience and observations. The results obtained through versatile decision-making processes forming the basis of landscape planning studies were evaluated together. Consequently, a method proposal that can be used in planning studies in our country's cities in this regard was developed.

13.Determination of the relationship between housing characteristics and housing prices before and after the Kahramanmaraş earthquake using machine learning: A case study of Adana, Türkiye
Simge Doğan, Levent Genç, Sait Can Yücebaş, Metin Uşaklı, Cengizhan Dumlu
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.22316  Pages 259 - 274
Earthquakes have a significant impact on the real estate sector. Damage caused by earthquakes leads to an imbalance in the supply and demand for housing, thus temporarily causing stagnation in the real estate sector. Two earthquakes occurred in Pazarcık and Elbistan districts of Kahramanmaraş on February 6, 2023 at 04.17 am with a magnitude of 7.7 and 13.24 am with a magnitude of 7.6. A machine learning based model was created to analyze the change in house prices and the variables affecting the price during the earthquake, which is called “the Disaster of the Century”. After the earthquake, the prices of houses for sale in the central districts of Adana province (Seyhan, Yüreğir, Sarıçam and Çukurova) where there was the least damage were collected from the relevant website with a web scraper. These data were classified as categorical and numerical datasets, and the necessary pre-processing stage for machine learning algorithms was performed. The characteristics that change and are effective in housing preferences before the earthquake (February 2022) and after the earthquake (February 2023) were determined by the decision tree method, which is one of the machine learning algorithms. In this context, it is aimed to determine the housing variables that are effective in before and after-earthquake pricing in the central districts of Adana province. In the study, while 'Building Age and Number of Room’ are effective in determining the price in 2022; 'Housing shape and Facade' feature comes to the fore in 2023. The housing characteristics that affect the price change in two years. The change in housing preference criteria after the earthquake shows that the lifestyle in cities has also changed. According to this change, it requires the development of new approaches in urban design and planning approaches and is expected to be a reference for future studies.

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