E-ISSN 1309-6915
Volume: 19 Issue: 1
Year: 2024

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Megaron: 19 (1)
Volume: 19  Issue: 1 - 2024
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1.Front Matter

Pages I - V

2.The effect of window configuration on passive cooling in mosque interiors
Hatice Sena Azkur, Murat Oral
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.46034  Pages 1 - 12
Cooling energy demand in buildings has more than doubled since 2000. Typically, the energy cost of a naturally ventilated building is 40% less than that of an air-conditioned building. Especially, a typical mosque's cooling energy needs are the biggest part that is consumed in the summertime. Mosque buildings are designed as buildings where the floor height is 5-6 times higher than the human scale. This height allows openings at various levels to be designed that can be used for natural ventilation. However, today, the windows that are at higher elevations in mosque buildings in Türkiye are designed as fixed windows with aesthetic concerns, and the potential for natural ventilation is ignored. Within the scope of the study, three different window configuration scenarios were modeled in ANSYS Fluent software, and the effect of natural ventilation on temperatures was tested. The first is the type in which openings close to the ground are designed, which represents the common design used in Türkiye; the second is ventilation with openings designed only at a higher level; and the third is ventilation with openings designed at two separate levels. In three different models, the inlet and outlet openings are the same size, but their places change. Velocity and temperature contour maps show that stack ventilation is quite efficient for mosque buildings. This study indicates that designing openings at higher elevations in mosque buildings creates significant differences in natural ventilation and lowers the air conditioning needs.

3.A cultural geography review on understanding the mechanisms of transformation in rural settlements: The case of İzmit district
Esra Ekşi Balcı, Iclal Sema Dinçer
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.08364  Pages 13 - 26
Rural areas, shaped by their internal dynamics, confront interconnected challenges such as an aging and sparse population, declining rural labor force, land division during inheritance transitions, and insufficient public services including education, healthcare, commerce, and culture. The migration from rural to urban areas exacerbates pressures on rural areas, particularly heightened during crises such as epidemics, earthquakes, droughts, floods, regional conflicts, wars, and migrations with global repercussions. These challenges negatively impact communities and urban areas, increasing vulnerability to subsequent crises.
The legislative framework for rural settlement planning in Turkey is lacking, leading to the adoption of urban planning tools in rural contexts. However, rural areas, closely connected to nature, possess distinct information. Unfortunately, this unique knowledge, akin to Bourdieu's habitus, is swiftly eroding. This study uniquely explores the analysis of rural areas through the lenses of habitus and cultural geography, combining two theoretical frameworks. The focus on İzmit as the sample field enhances its distinctive value in shedding light on these dynamics. This study delved into the impact of changing global dynamics on rural areas, particularly in Izmit. Uncontrolled transformations stemmed from central decisions, rural labor shifts, and urban migration, impacting culture, agriculture, and public spaces. To address these challenges, planning methodologies must adapt, incorporating on-site analyses and direct engagement with local inhabitants. Striking a balance between urban culture and rural sustainability is crucial. Efforts to understand the unique characteristics of a place, its inhabitants, and global trends are essential for fostering a harmonious transformation amidst the ongoing rapid changes in rural areas.

4.Examination of the impact of lighting layout on energy efficiency in the case of open plan office
Mehmet Soğukoğlu, Leyla Dokuzer Oztürk
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.99896  Pages 27 - 37
Lighting plays a significant role in the electricity consumption of buildings. It is widely acknowledged that the key factors influencing minimal energy consumption to meet the requirements of lighting design criteria are lamp efficacy, luminaire efficiency, and lighting control systems. However, the impact of the relationship between luminaire arrangement, luminaire’s luminous intensity distribution, and furniture arrangement on energy consumption has not been thoroughly examined. The objective of this study is to develop a method that can be utilized to determine luminaire positions while meeting values recommended in the EN 12464-1 for all occupants of an office based on luminaire’s luminous intensity distribution and furniture layout. For this purpose, an open-plan office for 24 individuals, 2 different desk layouts, 3 lighting types, and 19 luminaires with different luminous intensity distributions were considered. In the initial stage of the research, luminaire position options that meet the targeted values for each luminaire and workstation layout (a total of 38 configurations) were determined through trial and error. Subsequently, these options were compared in terms of energy consumption, and the most economical option was identified for each configuration. The total luminous flux required for each configuration was considered in the energy comparison. The configuration where visual comfort requirements were met with the least luminous flux was considered the most economical. It was revealed that the quadruple-desk layout was more economical than the dual-desk layout for all luminaires. In the final stage of the study, the energy usage results for 38 configurations were compared and evaluated.

5.An experimental study on the effects of lighting in the offices
Şefika Ayse Nur Pekin, Fatma Rengin Ünver
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.51447  Pages 38 - 50
In recent years, the number of studies on light and its effects on human beings has increased significantly. Various studies have shown that light has non-visual as well as visual effects on humans, and that these effects direct physiological, psychological, and behavioral responses such as alertness and circadian rhythms. The relevant literature cites national/international standards, legislation, metric/numerical measurement methods, and some suggested calculation methods (Circadian Stimulus, Equivalent Melanopic Lux, etc.) to quantify these effects. However, the data on the measuring instruments used and the measurement methods followed in indoor/in situ studies are quite limited. In order to contribute to the subject, research has been initiated to determine the visual and non-visual effects of light on indoor working environment users. This research presents and compares the results of an experimental study carried out to compare the photometric and radiometric measurement results of the same parameters (Ev, EML, Tcp values) by two different devices. To this end, measurements were taken in two different office environments with different daylight proportions to assess whether and under which conditions the devices could be used as substitutes for one another. In order to achieve this, hypothesis tests were applied to the test results to estimate the probability of the two measurements being equal.

6.Spatio-temporal change of the morphology in west corridor development region of Ankara city and 2022-2039 growth estimation
Öznur Işınkaralar
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.85226  Pages 51 - 60
The land is needed for many activities in cities due to rapid urbanization and population growth taking place on a global scale. In order to meet the demands of the increasing population, cities grow towards extensive rural lands and try to meet the citizens' needs for land spatially used for housing, transportation, industrial facilities, and education facilities. The change in urban morphology is one of the most discussed topics in planning from the past to the present, consisting of uniquely complex phenomena. The traditional method of urban science offers approaches based on Euclidean geometry, based on the assumption of uniform growth. However, urban morphology has a multidimensional fractal structure, and it is insufficient to understand the city as a living organism that evolves, changes, and develops very quickly. Since urban growth and expansion are an inevitable reality intertwined with economic growth, spatial changes in cities as living organisms are inevitable. Population growth worldwide is
one of the most critical parameters affecting cities' growth. Unplanned growth in cities causes many environmental problems, such as unplanned urbanization. Monitoring and forecasting land changes in urban growth and expansion processes are significant in producing effective regional and urban planning policies. In this process, the concept of urban morphology comes to the fore. In this context, the fractal dimension analysis emerges as a technique of interest. Decreases and increases in fractal values gain meaning by being associated with processes such
as expansion and growth observed in cities. Fractal geometry, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to evaluate this complex structure quantitatively. At the same time, it offers a new mathematical framework for describing urban morphology. The study aimed to investigate the development process of the development zone in the western corridor of Ankara, with a fractal analysis to be made at the urban scale through its morphological change. The temporal
changes in urban form and texture between 2005-2022 and the morphological character of Ankara are questioned through fractal analysis. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the western corridor of Ankara was analyzed on an urban scale, and the morphological change in 2039 was estimated within the scope of two different scenarios. The compact growing scenario (GC) proposes a growth model within the boundaries of the
determined area. The spreading-growing scenario (GS) assumes a spreading-growth behavior into the land cover, regardless of field boundaries. The GC scenario defines areas where growth will not occur outside the determined western development zone. On the other hand, the GS covers the growth areas produced by assuming that the entire urban geography is suitable for settlement without any restrictions. After defining the scenarios, fractal blots from 2005, 2013, 2022, and 2039 were obtained, and fractal analysis was carried out using the box-counting method. At the same time, it showed that urban spatial richness increased, as the value of 1.63 in 2005 reached 1.85 in GC and 1.98 in growing by GS in 2039. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the changes in the fractal dimensions obtained at the urban scale, the West development corridor experienced a rapid urbanization process from 2005 to the present, and this process showed urban expansion in the east-west direction.
Increases in fractal dimensions also indicate an increase in the complexity of the urban fabric, in other words, spatial richness. The simulation results of the year 2039 using the Cellular Automata - Markov chain method also support these results. Compact and spreading growth approaches produced within the scope of the research resulted in different growth behaviors of the city. While the growth is more controlled in the model restricted by the research area
boundaries, the expansion pressure of the city is quite remarkable in the scenario where there is no restriction. The data obtained by this method for West Ankara, which is determined as the development direction of the city with the plan decisions, has significant potential in evaluating the current situation and future spatial patterns. Therefore, the research offers a new perspective to describe the complexity of the urban system. In addition, it is thought to
have a guiding quality in the planning processes. The research offers a current perspective and innovation with a scenario-based model based on fractal geometry to describe the complexity of urban morphology.

7.The evaluation of the impact of computer classroom wall colors students' perception in the context of color components
Fazıla Duyan, Gizem Işık
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.96562  Pages 61 - 74
The arrangement of a computer class is as important as a traditional classroom layout. In recent years, as in traditional classrooms, environmental features of these classrooms, such as size, form, color, light, texture, etc., have a direct impact on students' perception, class participation, motivation, and concentration. This study aims to explore how various hues, values, and saturations of wall colors, representing a key environmental feature of a computer
classroom, affect students' spatial perception. Saturated, medium, dark, and light colors of red, blue-green, and purple hues, totaling twelve colors, were determined from the Munsell Color System for the wall colors of the classroom. The classroom was visualized using these selected wall colors and presented to the students. Subsequently, they were asked to evaluate the visualizations through a semantic differential scale comprising fifteen bipolar items. The results revealed that students perceived high-value and saturated colors across all hues positively, describing them as pleasant, warm, and cheerful. Medium colors were viewed negatively, characterized by descriptions such as 'lifeless, dull, incomprehensible, unpleasant, ugly.' Dark colors received positive assessments, described as "pleasant, beautiful, clean, and bright" but were also associated with negative descriptions like 'gloomy, boring, passive, and dark.' Additionally, similar perceptions emerged among saturated, medium, light, and dark colors of all hues. This outcome suggests that even when color hues differ, similar values and saturations can evoke similar perceptions in spatial color perception.

8.The holistic view of urban space method: Examination of public spaces around Kadıköy Marmaray stations
Özgün Özbudak, Ömür Barkul
doi: 10.14744/megaron.2024.22556  Pages 75 - 89
This study focuses on the development of a 7-criteria examination method for understanding, analysing, mapping and interpreting urban space and the testing of the method in the area around Marmaray Kadıköy stations. Within the framework of the study, based on the need for a method that enables the understanding and analysis of the urban space, 7 research criteria were created that include the holistic data of the city. These criteria aim to obtain holistic data by combining the plan level and urban form data of the urban space, the three-dimensional perceived (experienced) data of the space, the relationship of the historical process with economic, political, social and spatial dynamics, and mapping techniques. This method, called the "holistic view of urban space", allows data to be brought together, mapped, multiple readings and inferences to be made while experiencing and researching urban space.
In the study, carried out with the qualitative research method, theoretical information is brought together with the thematic analysis method and associated on the matrix. By associating the concepts on the matrix, the "holistic view of urban space" method is obtained. The data obtained after the field examination are analysed with 7 examination criteria and a mapping study is carried out. The analysis criteria make it possible to collect data at eye level and at plan level and to interpret them by associating them in the analysis of the urban space. The criteria allow to deepen the information by elaborating the collected data, as well as to provide holistic information from a higher scale through induction.

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