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The Place of Earthquake in Architectural Education and the Educational Dimension of the Earthquake: An Evaluation of the Global Agenda and Turkey Context [Megaron]
Megaron. 2021; 16(2): 223-254 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2020.94210  

The Place of Earthquake in Architectural Education and the Educational Dimension of the Earthquake: An Evaluation of the Global Agenda and Turkey Context

Ayla Ayyıldız Potur, Haşim Metin
Gebze Technical University, Department of Architecture

Due to tectonic - seismic - topographic structure, Turkey which is among the most affected countries in global scale of the earthquakes, the role of architects associated with disaster / earthquake phenomenon is important in terms of “interdisciplinary relations”, “processes related to planning”, “the process of earthquake resistant building design”, “the process of earthquake resistant building construction and inspection”, “post-disaster recovery, reconstruction process”. In this context, in this research, the professional responsibility area of the architect was evaluated with these criteria and the role of the architect in relation to the “disaster management phases” was questioned. The place and the importance of earthquake in the architectural education which is based on the foundations of the profession was evaluated as through comparative global agenda (USA, Japan, Turkey) by quantitative and qualitative dimensions. In addition to this general framework, the local context of the subject was questioned in terms of the “educational dimension of the earthquake”. The data was obtained through program, curriculum and course contents shared online and by reaching the institutions through correspondence in case where digital access is not possible. Turkey context, compared to the international agenda, was questioned by a slightly wider frame. A situation assessment has been made in terms of undergraduate programs, graduate programs and supportive learning environments. These data also provided the basis for the holistic assessment carried out in terms of education. The proposals developed have been classified in a very broad scope under different headings due to the multifaceted relations of the phenomenon of disaster / earthquake with architectural education and architectural professional practice. Thus, suggestions have been developed in various scopes including “Regarding General Responsibility”, “Regarding Planning Decisions”, “Regarding Interdisciplinary Relations”, “Regarding Undergraduate Curriculum, Architectural Design Studio Courses”,“ Regarding Supportive Learning Environments” for architectural education. The results show that, in terms of architectural education practices (undergraduate / graduate / supportive learning environments) and the requirements of the mechanism which the training is based (structure design / production / inspection system and related legislation), the 1999 Marmara Earthquake directly triggered some developments in terms of “learning from disasters”, “the educational dimension of earthquake” in its early years, but this acceleration has not been permanent in the past 20-year period. In this context, the proposals are about the necessity of providing a multidimensional set of relationships in terms of issues such as an integrated system organization. In this context, in relation to disaster / earthquake phenomenon, together with the self-criticism provided on qualitative and quantitative determinations, it is thought that the research will contribute to “the architectural education”, “architectural profession field” and therefore the country’s “architectural practice and policy”. The Marmara Sea (Silivri) earthquake (September 26, 2019) that occurred during the evaluation process of this article was felt in the entire Marmara Region. This earthquake, which took place in the 20th year of the 1999 Marmara Earthquake, is important in terms of social memory and reminding the disaster reality, as it was felt in a large, populated area. On the other hand, the Coronavirus Pandemic, which emerged in the evaluation process of this article and declared as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization, is within the scope of epidemiological disaster risks. Due to its global effects occurring simultaneously all over the world, Pandemic is an important milestone and breaking point in terms of being prepared for all kinds of disasters because of its vital - economic - sociological - psychological dimensions. It is thought that the pandemic is important in terms of re-questioning the period, which can be described as the “Anthropocene Age”, when the human being was at the center and nature was interpreted as an “unlimited resource” to meet human needs. This questioning may have the potential to alter - transform general trends all over the globe. It is possible that these changes will have an intense effect on architectural education and architectural professional practice. It is among the promising predictions that the young generation at the education stage, who faced the earthquake disaster -without painful consequences-through the Silivri Earthquake and experienced the effects of the pandemic -an epidemiological disaster- will have a more sensitive and conscious base for the ethical, global, social responsibilities of the architectural professional practice.

Keywords: Architectural education and profession in Japan and USA, disaster and supportive learning environments; disaster; earthquake in architectural education; earthquake; educational dimension of earthquake; Marmara earthquake of 1999.


Mimarlık Eğitiminde Depremin Yeri ve Depremin Eğitsel Boyutu: Küresel Gündem ve Türkiye Bağlamı Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme

Ayla Ayyıldız Potur, Haşim Metin
Gebze Teknik Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Kocaeli

Tektonik-sismik-topoğrafik yapısı nedeniyle dünya ölçeğinde depremlerden en fazla etkilenen ülkeler arasında yer alan Türkiye’de, mimarın afet/deprem olgusu ile ilişkili olarak rolü, “disiplinler arası ilişkiler”, “planlama ile ilgili süreçler”, “depreme dayanıklı yapı tasarım süreci”, “depreme dayanıklı yapı üretim ve denetim süreci”, “deprem sonrası iyileştirme, yeniden yapılanma süreci” gibi çeşitli boyutlar açısından önemlidir. Bu bağlamda, bu araştırmada, mimarın mesleki sorumluluk alanı bu ölçütlerle değerlendirilmiş, “afet yönetim evreleri” ile ilişkili olarak rolü sorgulanmıştır. Mesleğin temellerinin dayandığı mimarlık eğitiminde depremin yeri ve önemi, niceliksel ve niteliksel boyutlarıyla, küresel gündem üzerinden (Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, Japonya ve -daha detaylı çerçevede- Türkiye) ayrı ayrı değerlendirilmiş ve bir karşılaştırma değerlendirmesiyle özetlenmiştir. Veriler online olarak paylaşılan program, müfredat, ders içerikleri üzerinden ve dijital erişimin mümkün olmadığı durumlarda yazışmalar vasıtasıyla kurumlara ulaşılarak elde edilmiştir. Mimarlık eğitimine yönelik olarak, “genel sorumluluk alanına ilişkin”, “planlama kararlarına ilişkin”, “disiplinler arası ilişkilere ilişkin”, “lisans müfredatı, mimari tasarım stüdyo derslerine ilişkin”, “destekleyici öğrenme ortamlarına ilişkin” olmak üzere çeşitli kapsamlarda öneriler geliştirilmiştir. Bu çerçeveye ek olarak, konunun yerel bağlamı “depremin eğitsel boyutu” açısından “Ulusal Strateji” yönüyle sorgulanmıştır. Sonuçlar, mimarlık eğitim pratikleri (lisans/lisansüstü/destekleyici öğrenme ortamları) ve eğitimin temelini oluşturduğu mekanizmanın gereklilikleri (yapı tasarım/üretim/denetim sistemi, ilgili yasal mevzuat) açısından, 1999 Marmara Depremi’nin doğrudan kendisinin, ilk yıllarda, “afetten öğrenme”, “depremin eğitsel boyutu” açısından bazı gelişmeleri tetiklese de, 20 yıllık süreç içerisinde, bu ivmelenmenin kalıcı olamadığını göstermektedir. Bu bağlamda öneriler, bütünleşik bir sistem organizasyonu gibi konular açısından çok yönlü ilişkiler kümesinin sağlanması gerekliliği üzerinedir. Araştırmanın bu çerçevede, afet/deprem olgusu ile ilişkili olarak, niteliksel ve niceliksel saptamalar üzerinden getirdiği öz eleştiriyle beraber “mimarlık eğitimine”, “mimarlık meslek alanına” ve dolayısıyla ülkenin “mimarlık uygulamasına ve politikasına” katkıda bulunacağı düşünülmektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: 1999 marmara depremi, afet ve destekleyici öğrenme ortamları; afet; deprem; depremin eğitsel boyutu; Japonya’da ve Amerika’da mimarlık eğitimi; mimarlık eğitiminde deprem; mimarlık mesleği ve deprem.


Ayla Ayyıldız Potur, Haşim Metin. The Place of Earthquake in Architectural Education and the Educational Dimension of the Earthquake: An Evaluation of the Global Agenda and Turkey Context. Megaron. 2021; 16(2): 223-254

Corresponding Author: Ayla Ayyıldız Potur, Türkiye


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