YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE E-JOURNAL

E-ISSN 1309-6915
Volume: 16 Issue: 3
Year: 2020

Current Issue Published Issues Front Matter Most Accessed Articles Ahead of Print
Index and Coverage
Avery Index
DOAJ
EBSCO
Erih Plus
ESCI – Clarivate
GALE Cengage
Genamics
ProQuest
TR Dizin
TUBITAK Ulakbim
Ulrichs Web
The Original Synthesis of New Construction Technologies in the Beginnings of 20th Century: Architect Kemaleddin’s Vakif Han I and Hennebique System [Megaron]
Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 402-417 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2021.66742  

The Original Synthesis of New Construction Technologies in the Beginnings of 20th Century: Architect Kemaleddin’s Vakif Han I and Hennebique System

Ömer Dabanlı
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakif University, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Architecture Department, Istanbul

During the second half of the 19th century in Europe, to take effect in the Ottoman capital, Istanbul, it was necessary to wait for the beginning of the 20th century for the important developments in construction technology. Architect Kemaleddin, one of the important names of those years, which can be described as a transition period in terms of construction technology, skillfully benefited from the developing construction technologies in the buildings he designed, built, and produced original works in terms of construction technique as well as in the architectural style. As the first of the series of foundation inns, Vakıf Han I is an attractive work that synthesizes all available building materials and construction techniques of the period with its masonry, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique System), and steel elements. At the beginning of the 20th century, generally mixed construction techniques were used in such buildings which were built in Eminönü and Galata regions where a rapid urban transformation process was witnessed because of the developing maritime transport and international trade. However, there are not many studies about these buildings which are important documents of the construction techniques of the period, that enlightened the design approaches on how these techniques were used together. To protect the unique character of the buildings and as well as the period, detailed researches are needed to illuminate the construction details as well as building materials, but there are also some difficulties and limitations in conducting on-site research in such building which are usually in use. In this study, Vakif Han I is investigated in terms of new construction technologies in the beginnings of 20th century. The characterization of the original building techniques used and identification of the structural system are the purpose of the study to help for developing sustainable conservation strategies. Furthermore, the environment in which the building emerged is discussed in terms of developments in construction technologies. The structural design approaches of the period are examined through the original documents and projects obtained from the archive. The construction techniques used in the building are described by tracing the original projects in the building. The original projects of the building have been compared with the existing building by in situ observations. As a result of the comparison of original projects and existing building, it was obtained that, all available building materials and construction techniques of the period such as stone and brick masonry, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique System), and structural steel were used in Vakıf Han I, which reached today by preserving its originality. Moreover, it is determined that traditional masonry work and modern composite structural elements made of reinforced concrete (Hennebique System) and structural steel profiles were used in the construction of the building. The main structural system of the building consists of stone and brick masonry walls, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique) and composite (RC and steel) columns and beams, and as well as ribbed composite slabs. When the original projects in the archive and the existing building are compared, it is determined that the building was built completely in accordance with its projects. The contemporary conservation method accepts the approach of protecting buildings not only in terms of their architecture, art, and functions but also as a document reflecting the materials, building techniques, and construction technologies of the period they were built. Considering this approach, Vakif Han I is an original synthesis of the new construction technologies such as traditional masonry, early reinforced concrete (Hennebique System), structural steel, and composite structural elements in the beginning of the 20th century of Istanbul. Because of having an original mixed structural system and unifying the traditional and the modern, Vakif Han I is an important cultural asset with its unique characteristics that should be protected not only with its style and architecture but also with the rare construction techniques used. However, the original construction technologies used in the buildings of the period are being renewed and lost because of having recently functional changes under the pressure of tourism. Examining the construction techniques used in the buildings belonging to the transition period, which mediated the change in the late period architecture of the Ottoman Empire, provides a better understanding and contributes to the field of conservation to develop sustainable protection strategies of similar buildings by creating awareness to preserve the original techniques in their original design and provide encouraging information and aspects for their protection.

Keywords: 20. century Ottoman architecture, Architect Kemaleddin; early reinforced concrete; Hennebique.


20. Yüzyılın Başında Yeni Yapım Teknolojilerinin Özgün Bir Sentezi: Mimar Kemaleddin’in I. Vakıf Han’ı ve Hennebique Sistemi

Ömer Dabanlı
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf Üniversitesi, Mimarlık ve Tasarım Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, İstanbul

On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ikinci yarısında yapım teknolojisinde yaşanan önemli gelişmelerin Osmanlı başkentinde etkisini göstermesi için 20. yüzyılın başlarını beklemek gerekmiştir. Yapım teknolojisi açısından bir geçiş dönemi olarak nitelendirilebilecek o yılların önemli isimlerinden birisi olan Mimar Kemaleddin, tasarlayıp inşa ettiği binalarında dönemin gelişen yapım teknolojilerinden ustalıkla faydalanmış ve mimari üslubunda olduğu gibi yapım tekniği açısından da özgün eserler ortaya koymuştur. Vakıf hanlar dizisinin ilki olan I. Vakıf Han, barındırdığı kârgir, erken betonarme (Hennebique) ve çelik taşıyıcılarla dönemin tüm yapı malzemesi ve tekniklerini sentezleyen önemli bir eserdir. Bu çalışma kapsamında, arşivlerden elde edilen özgün projeler ile mevcut bina karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiş ve binanın özgünlüğünü koruduğu gözlenmiştir. Özgün projeler ve yerinde yapılan karşılaştırmalı incelemeler sonucunda, binanın yapımında kârgir, erken betonarme (Hennebique Sistem) ve çelikle oluşturulmuş kompozit elemanların kullanıldığı belirlenmiştir. Karma bir taşıyıcı sisteme sahip olan I. Vakıf Han, sadece üslubu ve mimarisiyle değil, aynı zamanda kullanılan yapım teknikleriyle de korunması gerekli özgün niteliklere sahip bir kültür varlığıdır. Bununla birlikte son zamanlarda önemli işlev değişikliklerine sahne olan dönem yapılarında kullanılan özgün ve ender nitelikteki yapım teknolojileri yenilenerek kaybedilmektedir. Osmanlı’nın geç dönem mimarisindeki değişime aracılık etmiş olan geçiş dönemine ait binaların inşaatında kullanılan yapım tekniklerinin irdelenmesi yoluyla dönem yapılarının daha iyi anlaşılması, bu tekniklerin özgün haliyle korunabilmesi adına farkındalık oluşturması ve korunması için teşvik edici bilgiler sunması sebebiyle koruma alanına katkılar sağlamaktadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: 20. yü, zyıl Osmanlı mimarisi; erken betonarme; Hennebique; Mimar Kemaleddin; Vakıf Han.


Ömer Dabanlı. The Original Synthesis of New Construction Technologies in the Beginnings of 20th Century: Architect Kemaleddin’s Vakif Han I and Hennebique System. Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 402-417

Corresponding Author: Ömer Dabanlı, Türkiye


TOOLS
Full Text PDF
Print
Download citation
RIS
EndNote
BibTex
Medlars
Procite
Reference Manager
Share with email
Share
Send email to author

Similar articles
PubMed
Google Scholar




© 2021 Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesİ Mimarlık Fakültesİ



LookUs & Online Makale