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The Effect of the Landmark on the Symmetry Axis to the Spatial Legibility of the Visually Impaired [Megaron]
Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 574-582 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2021.33269  

The Effect of the Landmark on the Symmetry Axis to the Spatial Legibility of the Visually Impaired

Özlem Belir
İstanbul Gedik University, Faculty Of Fine Arts and Architecture, Department Of Architecture

In the present study, the effects of the places where structural and sensory landmarks are found on the perception of space by the visually impaired were investigated on an example. In a symmetrical plan scheme, the fountain, which is a structural and sensory landmark for the visually impaired, is located at the intersection point in the x and y coordinate plane, makes it difficult for these people to understand the fiction of the space, prevent them from forming the plan scheme in their minds and thus making the scheme remembered and known. It is the demonstration of the extent to which cognitive maps formed with multiple senses in students in historical place affect legibility with a small example. It was investigated how the plan scheme and the places where the structural-sensory landmarks, which are among the parameters affecting the legibility, affect the perception of the visually impaired. In the study, the outputs of a workshop attended by students studying architecture at different universities were used. In the workshop, which we can explain as the experience of applying the invisibility dimension in the design process, different experiences were practiced about spatial legibility and shaping the space with multiple senses. The hospital section of the Sultan II Bayezid Complex was chosen as the experimental area of the workshop. In the workshop, after sharing and discussing the works and projects of some groups with Architect Carlos Mourao Pereira, the idea method was created to analyse the connectivity, integration and comprehensibility of a part of the historical space with a large number of sensory data within the scope of spatial syntax. This idea was developed during the compilation of the workshop results and has been the subject of this article. With the help of the Depthmap program, maps of the hospital section of the Complex were created and axial line analysis and the connectivity, integrity and intelligibility data of the space were examined. The results obtained were compared with opinions and productions of the students. In this study, axial line analysis and visibility graph analysis of the Darüşşifa section of the Sultan II. Bayezid Complex were analysed by means of the space syntax method and numerical data were obtained. A comparison of the findings and observations made by a group of students in the same place was made with the data obtained from the workshop conducted with architecture students. The students in the selected group experienced the space for the first time, using the blindfold, without using the sense of sight, and then drew the plan of the space where they tried to recognize it through temperature, acoustic differences and sense of touch. In fact, it is seen in the plan that the structure, which has a hexagonal plan, is perceived as an oval by the students using the blindfold. Architect Carlos Mourao Pereira emphasized that it is a very interesting point for students to perceive a non-oval space as oval, stating that oval spaces are difficult to perceive for the visually impaired. According to Pereira, if a space is designed for the visually impaired, the fountain, which can be defined as a sensory landmark, should not be located in the middle. In order to make numerical verification of Pereira’s determinations, axial maps were prepared in the Depthmap program to see the effect of the hospital section of the Külliye on human movement and the intensity of use. To reach the values in the Depthmap program, the fountain is placed to the left of the middle axis of the building with a symmetrical plan. Looking at the analysis results, it was determined that if the fountain is shifted from the middle axis, the number of axes with high connectivity value increases according to the original plan. The same increase was observed in the integration analysis. There was an increase in axles with high integration values. In this study, the importance of the location of the landmarks in buildings with symmetrical plan schemes for the visually impaired person to perceive the plan was revealed. Due to the fully symmetrical and central landmark, the person cannot determine the starting and the ending point, so a plan scheme cannot be formed in the mind. It is seen that the landmark placement on and off the axis of symmetry directly affects the plan reading of the visually impaired. The importance of the location of the landmarks in buildings with a symmetrical plan scheme has been demonstrated in terms of the visually impaired person to perceive the plan scheme.

Keywords: Landmark, space syntax; spatial legibility; visually impaired.


Simetri Eksenindeki İşaret Ögesinin Görme Engellinin Mekânsal Okumasına Etkisi

Özlem Belir
İstanbul Gedik Üniversitesi, Güzel Sanatlar ve Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, İstanbul

Görme engelli bireyin (görmeyen ve az gören), gören bir kişi gibi, nerede olduğunu ve nereye gitmekte olduğunu bilmesi konforunu yaşaması, dolayısıyla bağımsız hareket edebilmesi gereklidir. Bireyin bağımsızlığı ancak bulunduğu mekânı algılaması ile ilgilidir. Mekânı okuyabilen gören ya da görmeyen her kişi bağımsızdır. Bağımsız olan her kişi için içinde bulunduğu mekân ve çevre erişilebilirdir. Bu çalışmada, Edirne’deki, 1484-1488 yılları arasında inşa edilmiş Sultan İkinci Bayezid Külliyesi’nin, halen sağlık müzesi olarak kullanılan Darüşşifa bölümünün, mekân dizimi yöntemi ile eksenel hat analizi ve görünür alan analizleri yapılmış ve sayısal verilere ulaşılmıştır. Mekân dizim yöntemi ile elde edilen değerler aynı mekânda bir grup mimarlık öğrencisi ile yapılan atölye çalışmasının çıktıları ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Duyusal potansiyelleri zengin olan tarihi mekânda gerçekleştirilen atölye çalışmasında, akustik, koku ve dokunsal algı ile elde edilen bilgi bütününün çözümlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Tasarım sürecinde, görünmezlik boyutunun uygulanabilme deneyimi olarak açıklayabileceğimiz atölye çalışmasında, çoklu duyularımızla mekânı okumak, biçimlendirmek ile ilgili farklı deneyimler yaşanmıştır. Öğrenciler, oluşturdukları yeni tasarımlar ve tespit ettikleri sorunların çözüm önerilerini ortaya koymuşlardır. Amaç, çoklu duyularla oluşan bilişsel haritaların, okunabilirliğe hangi ölçüde etki ettiğinin küçük bir örnekle ortaya konulmasıdır. Okunabilirliğe etki eden parametrelerden olan plan şemasının ve yapısal-duyusal işaret ögelerinin bulunduğu yerlerin görme engellilerin algılamasına nasıl etki ettiği araştırılmıştır. Simetri eksenindeki ve eksen dışındaki işaret ögesi yerleşiminin, görme engellinin plan okumasına doğrudan etki ettiği görülmektedir. Simetrik plan şemasına sahip binalarda işaret ögelerinin yerinin görme engelli kişinin planı algılayabilmesi açısından önemi ortaya konulmuştur.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Görme engelli, işaret ögesi; mekân dizimi; mekânsal okunabilirlik.


Özlem Belir. The Effect of the Landmark on the Symmetry Axis to the Spatial Legibility of the Visually Impaired. Megaron. 2021; 16(3): 574-582

Corresponding Author: Özlem Belir, Türkiye


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