YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ E-DERGİSİ

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Cilt : 17 Sayı: 2 Yıl : 2022

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Çevresel kent kimliği üzerine mekânsal bir okuma: Kültürel miras olarak pulların kent belleğindeki yeri [Megaron]
Megaron. 2022; 17(3): 461-485 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2022.90592  

Çevresel kent kimliği üzerine mekânsal bir okuma: Kültürel miras olarak pulların kent belleğindeki yeri

Yelda Durgun Şahin
Adana Bilim ve Teknoloji Üniversitesi Mimarlık ve Tasarım Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü Şehircilik Anabilim Dalı, Adana, Türkiye

Kent pulları, ait oldukları ülkenin kültürel, sosyal, ekonomik, tarihsel, turistik, mimari gibi çok çeşitli ulusal kimlik değerlerini yansıtan ve kentlerin tanıtılmasında etkin rol alan önemli tarihsel belgelerdir. Pullar, üzerlerindeki yapı, eser, konu, tema gibi bilgiler aracılığı ile bir kentin, bir ülkenin tarihini nitelemektedir. Bu çalışmanın konusu, 1958-1960 yılları arasında basılmış olan Türkiye’nin 67 vilayetine ait “Büyük Memleket Şehirleri” posta pullarının, kent ve mimari ölçekte yansıtmak istediği çevresel kimliği anlamaya çalışmaktır. Çalışma kapsamında, pulların resmedildikleri tarihteki sanatçının imgelem alanındaki kentsel çevrede kimlik algısı ele alınmıştır. İmgesel özellik gösteren ögeler, çalışmanın kavramsal ve kuramsal yaklaşımında ortaya koyulan yapay ve doğal çevre kimlik bileşenleri kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma üç temel aşamada kurgulanmış, birinci aşamada pullar, bölgesel olarak gruplandırılmış ve üzerinde mekânsal okuma gerçekleştirilmiştir. İkinci aşamada, çevresel kimliği oluşturan kriter ağırlıklarının belirlenmesi için analitik hiyerarşi süreci yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Üçüncü aşamada, vilayetlerin yansıtmış olduğu kent kimliği (çevresel) algısı, sayısallaştırılan veri setlerinin birlikte değerlendirilmesi ile bölgesel olarak yorumlanmıştır. Çalışmanın sonunda çevresel kimlik algısının, bölgelere göre farklılıklara sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Değişen çevre koşullarıyla aynı bileşenin farklı bir kentte, insan üzerinde bıraktığı etkinin değiştiği ve kimlik oluşumunu farklı oranlarda etkilediği görülmüştür. Soyut bir veri olan kimlik algısının, seçilen yöntemler ile ölçülebilir nitelikte olduğu ortaya koyulmuştur. Ayrıca pullar, üzerinde yer alan kent resimleri ile tarihsel bir dönemi ve kültürel mirası yansıtması nedeniyle, kent belleği aracı olarak korunması gereken belge niteliği taşımaktadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Analitik hiyerarşi sü, reci yöntemi; çevresel kimlik; kentsel imaj; kentsel kimlik; kent pulları


A spatial reading on environmental urban identity: The place of stamps as cultural heritage in urban memory

Yelda Durgun Şahin
Department of Architecture, Adana Science and Technology University Faculty of Architecture and Design, Adana, Türkiye

Türkiye is a unique country with its natural beauties, historical and archaeological heritage, socio-cultural life. Each of these characteristics gives a local urban identity for each city. The Great Country Cities series of postage stamps in the Republic of Türkiye belonging to 67 cities showing the photographs of the cities were printed between 1958-1960. Stamps as an inventory and a tool for urban memory express our national identity. By creating stamp illustrations that show the natural and artificial environment of cities, they have become a visual communication tool that allows cities to be promoted and reach a wide audience.
In this study, which is about environmental identity analysis, it is selected the Great Country Cities series of postage stamp to study the perception of the city of the photographer(s).The intuitive approach of the photographer while photographing the urban environment has led to the promotion of cities by reaching large audiences through stamps. This study aims to reveal the perception of the urban environment that influences these artists' decisions when photographing cities. Therefore, the study is carried to determine the environmental identity components and image elements of the urban area on the city stamps. Thus, the perception of the city by the artist who photographs cities would be revealed.
This study evaluated the artist's perception when these stamps were photographed. There are three stages to the study. In the first stage, the city stamps are grouped regionally and the environmental identity elements are analysed according to the city image components. In the second stage, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to determine the weights of the criteria constituting the environmental identity. At the third stage, the perception of urban identity (environmental) that the artist/artists who photographed cities wanted to emphasise about that cities were evaluated comparatively with weighted criteria. At the end of the study, it is seen that the environmental urban identity perception has regional differences, and the image elements of the cities are revealed. When the regional analysis findings were compared with the AHP method; It is seen that the order of the criteria weights of the artificial environment components and the order of the graphical reading (findings obtained in accordance with the Gestalt theory and Lynch city image component analysis) findings, which are considered regionally, are the same. When the natural environmental components are examined regionally; in all regions, geographical features are the first element that comprises the environmental identity, followed by natural vegetation, and finally by water. When the artificial environmental components are examined regionally; in all regions, urban image element make up the first component of environmental identity, followed by urban masses and urban transportation network. It is seen that urban void is the least perceived artificial environmental component in all regions. As a result, regional differences are seen in environmental identity perception. Moreover, as environmental conditions change in different cities, the same component affects identity formation at different rates and has varying effects on people. Thus, studying environmental identity requires evaluation of the natural environment in conjunction with the artificial environment because they are inseparable.
According to the study's outputs that natural and artificial environmental components need to be evaluated holistically in urban identity studies. It is demonstrated that the perception of identity, which is intangible data, can be measured by used method. In terms of supporting the results of the regional analysis, the use of the AHP method in evaluating environmental identity is regarded positively. Stamps serve as an urban memory tool, conserving a historical era and cultural heritage as documents. This study is important because it introduces the components that reflect the past urban identities of the 67 cities studied. It is known that there are changes in the identities of these cities with the different historical layers and environmental variables they have today. Thus, the city postage stamp as urban memory tool is an effective inventory of preserving and recording urban identity information of the historical cities that describing a era.

Keywords: AHP method, environmental identity; urban image; urban identity; city postage stamp


Yelda Durgun Şahin. A spatial reading on environmental urban identity: The place of stamps as cultural heritage in urban memory. Megaron. 2022; 17(3): 461-485

Sorumlu Yazar: Yelda Durgun Şahin, Türkiye


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