YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ E-DERGİSİ

E-ISSN 1309-6915
Cilt : 17 Sayı: 2 Yıl : 2022

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Cephe yönlenmesinin tarihi konutların enerji kullanımına etkileri: Güneybatı Anadolu’da dış sofalı konutlar [Megaron]
Megaron. 2022; 17(1): 23-34 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2022.46959  

Cephe yönlenmesinin tarihi konutların enerji kullanımına etkileri: Güneybatı Anadolu’da dış sofalı konutlar

Barış Ali TİMUR1, Tahsin BAŞARAN2, Başak İPEKOĞLU3
1Serbest Mimar
2İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, İzmi̇r, Türkiye
3İzmir Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü Mimarlık Fakültesi, Kültür Varlıklarını Koruma ve Onarım Bölümü, İzmi̇r, Türkiye

Cephe yönlenme durumu, yapıların enerji kullanım miktarlarını etkileyen önemli bir tasarım parametresi olarak kabul edilmektedir. Bu parametre özellikle yeni yapı tasarımı alanında, yönlenme optimizasyon kararları geliştirmek üzere birçok araştırmada incelenmiştir. Buna karşılık, tarihi yapıların yönlenmesi ve enerji kullanım miktarları arasındaki ilişkiyi irdeleyen çalışmalar sınırlıdır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Anadolu coğrafyasında yaygın bir tarihi yapı türü olan dış sofalı konutların Muğla kenti örnek yerleşmesindeki hâkim yönlenme durumları ile enerji kullanım düzeyleri arasında belirgin bir ilişki olup olmadığının araştırılmasıdır. Araştırma yöntemi, DesignBuilder v.5.4.0.21 yazılımında gerçekleştirilmiş olan yapı ısıl modellemesi ve simülasyonudur. Çalışmada, örnek bir tarihi konutun mimari özellikleri kullanılarak oluşturulmuş sanal bir yapı modelinin sofa yönlenme durumu, ana ve ara yönlere göre değiştirilerek ısıl simülasyonları gerçekleştirilmiş ve simülasyonlar sonucu hesaplanan ısıtma ve soğutma enerji ihtiyaçları karşılaştırılmıştır. Simülasyonlar, karşılaştırmalı olarak önce yapı çevresindeki kütle ve peyzaj elemanlarıyla sonra bu elemanlar olmadan iki sonuç seti için gerçekleştirilmiştir. Simülasyonlar sonucunda, örnek yapı türü için en iyi ve en verimsiz yönlenme durumları arasında enerji kullanımı açısından hesaplanan oransal farkın %1,3 ile %2,2 arasında olduğu saptanmıştır. Bu sonuca göre, örnek yapı türü enerji kullanım durumunun çok yüksek oranda yönlenmeden bağımsız olduğu, bu nedenle de örnek yerleşmedeki dış sofalı konutlar için hâkim yönlenme tercihi ile yapı enerji kullanım düzeyleri arasında dikkate değer bir ilişki olmadığı belirlenmiştir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Dış sofalı konut, ısıl simülasyon, tarihi yapı, yönlenme


The effects of facade orientation to the energy use of historical houses: Houses with exterior hall (sofa) in Southwestern Anatolia

Barış Ali TİMUR1, Tahsin BAŞARAN2, Başak İPEKOĞLU3
1Freelance Architect
2Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, İzmir Institute of Technology, İzmir, Turkey
3Department of Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage, Faculty of Architecture, İzmir Institute of Technology, İzmir, Turkey

Sustainable urbanism and energy-efficient updating of built-up environments have become the subject of extensive academic literature and an industrious implementation area for the construction sector. This interest mostly stems from a worldwide trend of national legislative and financial initiatives originating from a well-justified consensus of the international society on promoting the conservation of natural resources and preventing climate change. In the analytical essence of research that supports these initiatives, there lies the inquiry of specifying thermal behaviour and energy requirements of buildings. Among many variables such as thermophysical properties of construction materials, building form, urban pattern and local weather conditions; facade orientation is accepted as a significant design parameter determining energy consumption rates of buildings. Especially in the new building design field, this parameter has often been examined for distinct settlements and building types to develop case-specific optimisation decisions. However, studies that analysed the correlation between orientation and the energy consumption of historical buildings are very limited, even though such studies would have the potential of determining thermal properties and the capabilities of historical structures to re-identify the technical and cultural values of this heritage as well as establishing supporting data for planning and conservation of historical settlements. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between the dominant facade orientation preference of a specific historical building type and its energy demand rates. The method of the study is thermal modelling and simulations on DesignBuilder v5.4.0.21 software. Complementary to these works, on-site thermal measurements of outside air temperature and relative humidity parameters, and laboratory analyses on thermophysical properties of sample historical construction materials were also conducted. With the study, orientation input of a virtual building model, which was formed using architectural features of an example 19th century historical house, was altered between cardinal and ordinal directions, and the model was simulated accordingly to calculate and compare its heating and cooling energy demands. Functional schemes for the spaces of the building model were scheduled as if the building was utilised by its original users. Simulations were executed for two comparative result sets as firstly thermal calculations were performed for the building model with surrounding masses and landscape elements, and secondly for the model without these components. This study is based on experimental examinations of quantitative data. Historical houses with exterior halls were chosen for the study case as they are a very common building type in the Anatolian geography and Muğla city was selected for sample settlement as it inhabits a significant portion of well-conserved historical houses of this type. The numerical result sets of this study reflect the conditions specified for the study case-building type within the sample settlement, yet the conclusions have the potency of generalisation once being supported by possible future works. Through the simulations, final system loads, which are independent of the types and efficiency rates of heating and cooling instruments as well as the consumed fuel types, were calculated as an indicator of annual energy demand rate per unit area (kWh/m²). It was specified that the energy demand rate difference between the optimum and the worst orientation cases is very minimal and between 1.3% and 2.2%. Also, complementary to this result, it was determined that the effects of surrounding masses and landscape elements on the building energy use are very nominal too; as only an average 5.0% energy demand difference was found between the simulation results of building models with and without these surrounding components. According to simulation results, it was determined that the energy use of historical houses with the exterior hall is mostly independent of the change in orientation and therefore, there is not a noteworthy correlation between the dominant orientation preferences observed in the example settlement, Muğla and the building energy demand rates of the examined building type. As trying to establish one of the initial research attempts on a very scarcely-studied, yet - with academic and practical potentials - being an important research topic that is the examination of facade orientation preferences of Anatolian historical buildings, with this study, it was sought to call attention to the importance of determining the thermal properties of the architectural heritage of this geography as to support the conservation and planning decision-making.

Keywords: Historical house with exterior hall, thermal simulation, historical building, orientation


Barış Ali TİMUR, Tahsin BAŞARAN, Başak İPEKOĞLU. The effects of facade orientation to the energy use of historical houses: Houses with exterior hall (sofa) in Southwestern Anatolia. Megaron. 2022; 17(1): 23-34

Sorumlu Yazar: Başak İPEKOĞLU, Türkiye


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