YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ E-DERGİSİ

E-ISSN 1309-6915
Cilt : 16 Sayı: 2 Yıl : 2021

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Salonların Mimari Tasarımının Erken Düşme Süresi ve Çınlama Süresi Akustik Parametrelerine Etkisi [Megaron]
Megaron. 2021; 16(1): 81-91 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2021.12979  

Salonların Mimari Tasarımının Erken Düşme Süresi ve Çınlama Süresi Akustik Parametrelerine Etkisi

Nuriye Nida Çelebi Şeker
Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, İç Mimarlık Bölümü, İstanbul

Konuşmanın çaba sarf edilmeden anlaşılabilmesi, konfor içinde o konuşmayı veya oyunu dinlemeye ve izlemeye yardımcı olduğundan, konuşma amaçlı salonlarda konuşma anlaşılabilirliğinin sağlanması, temel akustik gereksinimlerden biridir. Konuşma amaçlı salonlara örnek olarak; tiyatrolar, konferans salonları, derslikler ve toplantı salonları verilebilir. Bu salonlar birçok plan şemasına sahip olabilecek hacimlerdir. Bahsedilen plan farklılıkları akustik açıdan da salonlarda değişikliklere sebep olmaktadır. Bu çalışma kapsamında, üç farklı plan şemalı dört farklı salon ele alınmış ve bu salonlar akustik açıdan değerlendirilmiştir. İki farklı plan şemalı dikdörtgen, bir fan ve bir elmas salonlardan oluşan çalışmada konuşma için öncelikli olan akustik parametrelerden ikisi olan; erken düşme süresi ve çınlama süresi değerleri salonlarda belirlenen kritik yerlerdeki alıcılar için karşılaştırılmış ve hangi plan geometrisinin konuşmayı etkileyen parametrelerden erken düşme süresi ve çınlama süresini ne şekilde etkilediği irdelenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, salonlar tasarlanırken, mimari tasarımın akustik performansı ve konforu etkilediği göz önünde bulundurulmalı, akustik açıdan konuşma anlaşılabilirliğinin sağlanması için geometrik şartlar da optimize edilmeye çalışılmalıdır. Hacimlerdeki geometrik farklılıklar akustik parametrelerde de farklılıklara yol açmaktadır. Hacmin genişliği, uzunluğu, en/boy oranı, hacimde paralel yüzeylerin bulunması, yan duvar katkısı, yan duvarların açısı ve tavan panellerinin şekli; erken yansımaları, yanal yansımaları, gecikmiş yansımaları, toplam ses enerjisini ve dolayısıyla da erken düşme süresi ve çınlama süresi gibi konuşma için önemli olan akustik parametrelerin değerlerini etkilemektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Akustik parametreler, çınlama süresi; erken düşme süresi; konuşma amaçlı salonlar; hacim akustiği.


Effects of Architectural Design on Acoustic Parameters EDT and T30 in Halls

Nuriye Nida Çelebi Şeker
Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University

Speech halls can have many plan schemes and the mentioned plan differences cause further differences in the halls in terms of acoustics. Within the scope of this study, halls with rectangular, fan and diamond plan schemes have been handled and these halls have been compared acoustically. An answer was tried to be found to the question of “What is the effect of architectural design on acoustic performance?” It was aimed to examine the speech intelligibility in four different medium sized halls of three different types, being rectangular (1x1), rectangular (1x1.5), fan, and diamond, with a capacity of approximately 700 people. It was also aimed to reveal how the architectural design of the halls affect the EDT and T30 values among the acoustic parameters. The halls were designed according to the literature and were drawn in Autodesk Autocad 2012 program, necessary ray analyzes were made and modeled in three dimensions with the help of Google Sketch Up 8 program. In these modeled halls, some acoustic calculations and evaluations were made with the acoustic simulation program called Odeon 10.0 Combined. By comparing the results of these four halls with each other, it has been examined which of the halls are more acoustically efficient in which situations or which one causes what kind of acoustic defects. The halls designed according to the literature are similar to each other in volume, average height, capacity, per capita volume and areas; the halls with four different plan schemes were designed in three different types: rectangular 1x1 (hall 1a), rectangular 1x1,5 (hall 1b), fan (hall 2), and diamond (hall 3). Some material acceptances, acoustic calculations and evaluations were made in the simulation program named Odeon 10.0 Combined. As a result of these evaluations, these three different types of halls with four different plan schemes were examined and compared in terms of speech intelligibility inside the halls. From this point of view, it was concluded that which hall geometry had optimum values for which parameter and which one caused what kind of problems. For the EDT and T30 parameters, evaluations have been made for both the general of the halls and for certain receivers at a frequency of 1000 Hz. The effect of geometry on parameters; in the halls, the values of the parameters in the receivers at 1000 Hz, the average values of the parameters at 1000 Hz were interpreted with the help of receiver area grid analysis and beam-reflection graphics. As a result, which of the different plan schemes in the speech halls; among the parameters affecting speech intelligibility, it was tried to determine how the EDT and T30 affect them and which plan type is more efficient in terms of acoustics. Considering the average EDT-T30 values of the halls at 1000 Hz, T30 values are the highest in the overall receivers due to the short reflection path of Hall 1b. The lowest T30 values belong to hall 2, because the fan room is weak in terms of energy in terms of form. This situation reveals the more optimal EDT-T30 relationship for the fan hall, ie, the T30> EDT difference is less because the T30 is lower. Due to the side wall contribution of Hall 3, the T30 values of the buyers are approximately higher with hall 1a and compared to hall 2. In this context, the width, length, aspect ratio of the volume, the parallel surfaces in the volume, contribution of side walls, the angle of the side walls and the shape of the ceiling panels; It has been found that it affects early reflections, lateral reflections, delayed reflections, total sound energy and hence the EDT and T30 values. Particularly in halls with a rectangular plan, the width and length of the sitting area of the hall should not be equal to each other and / or the length of the sitting area should not exceed 25 meters, the use of parallel surfaces should be avoided or the parallelism of these surfaces should be disrupted by scattering. In addition, it should not be forgotten that concave surfaces cause focusing, the use of concave surfaces should be avoided, or they should be covered with a scattering or absorbing material. It should not be forgotten that the side wall reflections of the halls with fan plan schemes are weak especially for the receivers on the middle axis and they are mostly fed from the ceiling, and should be supported by ceiling reflections. Increased energy due to the energy contribution of the broken side walls in the diamond plan halls taken into consideration; it should be tried to be kept under control by measures to be taken with materials or other building elements. Because the excess energy in the hall means long delayed reflections and echo. Original halls were designed and the effect of architectural design on the acoustic parameters EDT and T30 was revealed with the help of the simulation program.

Keywords: Acoustic parameters, early decay time; reverberation time; room acoustic; speech rooms.


Nuriye Nida Çelebi Şeker. Effects of Architectural Design on Acoustic Parameters EDT and T30 in Halls. Megaron. 2021; 16(1): 81-91

Sorumlu Yazar: Nuriye Nida Çelebi Şeker, Türkiye


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