YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE E-JOURNAL

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Year: 2020

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A parametric model proposal for energy efficient settlement texture and building design: Temperate-humid climate zone [Megaron]
Megaron. Ahead of Print: MEGARON-89990 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2021.89990  

A parametric model proposal for energy efficient settlement texture and building design: Temperate-humid climate zone

İdil Erdemir Kocagil, GÜL KOÇLAR ORAL
Department Of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

Energy consumption in urban areas is constantly increasing to satisfy human needs that are shaped in line with developing technology and changing life conditions. Currently, urban areas account for three-quarter of global primary energy use and 70% of the world's greenhouse gas emission (UN-Habitat, 2020). It is extremely important to transform existing urban settlements considering energy efficient solutions to keep the natural balance for ensuring a more sustainable world. Thus, the design of settlements is held responsible not only for the development of common urban spaces, but also for the energy performance of buildings depending on the complex settlement geometry. Therefore, many different variables should be integrated into the settlement design process to provide optimum conditions for buildings by reducing heating, cooling and lighting energy consumption. Regarding this goal, the proposed model aimed to reveal the interaction between settlement geometry and building form with a parametric approach by comparing the impact level of each design parameter related to settlement and building on building energy performance at different scales. A performance-oriented simulation method was used to assess settlement scenarios generated from simplified urban geometries to narrow down design options regarding the principles of early design stage exploration and iteration. The approach was implemented in Istanbul (temperate-humid climate), where ongoing urban renewal has already been changing existing settlement textures and increasing urban density, for making a significant contribution to the country's economy by offering sustainable measures. In this framework, a four-staged model has been proposed to develop suitable design solutions via determination of energy efficient values for the design parameters providing minimum energy consumption for a reference building in settlement texture. At the first stage, parameters related to climate, user, settlement texture, building and active building sub-systems were defined based on the result of a detailed research regarding related standards, regulations and statistical data to establish reference building. At the second stage, as the outcome of the various combinations of identified values for design parameters related to settlement texture and building (plan type, number of floors, H/W ratio, settlement type), 18 settlement scenario alternatives composed of exactly identical buildings were generated. In the third stage, the effect of each design parameter on building energy performance was evaluated by calculating annual heating, cooling and lighting energy consumption per module for reference building defined in scenarios. Within this scope, respectively the design parameters related to settlement and building (plan type, number of floors, H/W ratio and settlement type), building envelope (opaque envelope layering and transparency ratio) and building control systems (solar control) were analyzed from upper scale to lower scale by presenting the results comparatively to reveal energy efficiency level obtained from each design alternatives. In the fourth stage, due to inability to determine the absolute solution in urban design (Oke, 1988), the data obtained as a result of the comprehensive evaluations were compiled for Istanbul in a sample application format on how decisions to be taken for the design parameters affect energy performance of building. The study revealed that heating energy consumption of buildings in the temperate-humid climate zone is higher than cooling energy consumption due to shorter cooling period and than lighting energy consumption due to less need for artificial lighting in the residential buildings. In other words, various applications of design solutions aiming to reduce heating energy consumption of buildings for the settlements to be developed in Istanbul is beneficial regarding increase in energy efficiency level. In this respect, it was found that square plan due to more compact form than rectangular, pavilion due to higher amount of solar radiation gain through three façades than slabs, higher buildings due to better solar access than lower buildings and lower H/W ratios due to wider distance between buildings than higher H/W ratios ensured lower heating energy consumption for buildings. According to the results, in the settlements established based on proper decisions taken during the preliminary design process, a decrease of up to 26% was achieved in total energy consumption of building compared to other alternatives. In addition, it has been determined that the energy performance of building can be improved up to 19% with the integration of building envelope optimization and solar control systems. Consequently, this approach has an opportunity to bridge an existing gap by synthesizing best practices for decision makers based on building energy performance objectives and energy efficient design solutions by contributing to develop comprehensive awareness that will lead into a more sustainable built environment.

Keywords: energy efficiency, design parameters, building energy performance, residential building design, settlement texture


Enerji etkin yerleşme dokusu ve bina tasarımına yönelik parametrik bir model önerisi: Ilımlı-nemli iklim bölgesi

İdil Erdemir Kocagil, GÜL KOÇLAR ORAL
İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Ana Bilim Dalı, İstanbul

Kentsel yerleşmeler küresel enerji tüketiminin önemli bölümünden sorumlu oldukları için yeni geliştirilecek yerleşmelerin enerji etkin olarak tasarlanması güncel ve önemli bir yaklaşım olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu doğrultuda çalışmada enerji etkin yerleşme dokusu ve bina tasarımına yönelik geliştirilen parametrik bir model önerisinin sunulması amaçlanmıştır. Modelde tasarım parametrelerinin bina enerji tüketimi üzerindeki etki düzeylerini değerlendirmek için performans odaklı bir simülasyon yöntemi kullanılarak tasarım aşamasına yönelik uygun çözümlerin üretilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Önerilen model, ılımlı-nemli iklim bölgesinde yer alan ve hızlı bir kentsel dönüşüm sürecinden geçen İstanbul için uygulanmıştır. Belirlenen yerleşme dokusu ve binaya ilişkin tasarım parametrelerinin (plan tipi, kat sayısı, H/W oranı, yerleşme tipi) kombinasyonlarıyla 18 senaryo alternatifi üretilerek farklı ölçeklerde (yerleşme, bina, bina kabuğu, kontrol sistemleri) alınan tasarım kararlarının referans binanın enerji performansına etkileri analiz edilmiştir. Yerleşmelerin geometrisi, binaların birbirlerine göre konumlarına bağlı olarak güneş erişim düzeylerini kontrol etmekte ve enerji performansını etkilemektedir. İstanbul için konutlarda ısıtma enerjisi tüketimi soğutma ve aydınlatma enerjisine kıyasla yüksektir; dolayısıyla, ısıtma enerjisi tüketiminin azaltılabilmesi için yüksek güneş erişimi sağlayan düşük H/W oranlarına sahip ve ayrık nizamda konumlanmış binaların yer aldığı yerleşme dokuları öne çıkmaktadır. Enerji analizlerine göre, tasarım sürecinde alınan doğru tasarım kararlarıyla kurulan yerleşmelerde diğer alternatiflere kıyasla toplam enerji tüketiminde %26 oranına varan düşüş sağlanmış; bina kabuğu optimizasyonu ve güneş kontrol sistemlerinin entegrasyonuyla binaların enerji performansının %19 oranına kadar iyileştirilebileceği tespit edilmiştir. Yüksek enerji performansına sahip binalar ve sürdürülebilir yerleşmelere yönelik olarak tasarım kararlarının önemini vurgulayan bu çalışmada sunulan yaklaşım, karar verici paydaşlar için alternatif uygulamaları sentezleyerek kentsel planlama alanındaki mevcut boşluğun doldurmasına katkı sağlamayı hedeflemektedir.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Enerji etkinliği, tasarım parametreleri, bina enerji performansı, konut binası tasarımı, yerleşme dokusu




Corresponding Author: İdil Erdemir Kocagil, Türkiye


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