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A Quality of Life Investigation of the Population Over 65 Years Old Concerning Turkish Provinces with Different Agglomeration Levels of Elderly Population [Megaron]
Megaron. 2021; 16(1): 129-142 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2020.54715  

A Quality of Life Investigation of the Population Over 65 Years Old Concerning Turkish Provinces with Different Agglomeration Levels of Elderly Population

Neşe Köse1, Nilgün Çolpan Erkan2
1Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Directorate of Superstructure Projects
2Yıldız Technical University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of City and Regional Planning, Istanbul

Technological developments, improvement of health services, advances in geriatric science and an overall increase in quality of life (QOL) have caused a decrease in human mortality and an increase in the ratio of elderly population within the average population. Depending on geography, this proportional rise often differs in the world’s developed and developing countries. Different agglomerations have been seen in the elderly population of Turkey in urban and rural settlements. The purpose of the analysis is to assess if there is a connection between the rural and urban agglomeration of Turkey’s elderly population and the provincial data on the QOL. The goal is also to decide which cities are crowded with the elderly, whose ratio rises every year; to see which of the QOL indicators in these cities stand out and which are lacking. The present study’s sub-objectives are to draw attention to the elderly’s QOL and to highlight the fact that older people are part of social life, structure and culture. In the review, the methods of literature research and field analysis were used jointly. Using the location coefficient technique, the agglomeration maps of the elderly population were made for urban and rural areas. In this report, as the rural settlements of the provinces that were in Metropolitan Municipalities in 2012 were converted into neighborhoods under Law No. 6360 on rural and urban settlements, instead of current statistics, the elderly population data for 2012 were used. In this sense, the 2013 data was regarded as the basis of the TURKSTAT QOL survey instead of the current QOL data. The agglomeration maps developed by the provinces with the highest and lowest accumulation of elderly in urban and rural areas were taken into consideration. QOL data has been analyzed and interpreted in depth in the selected provinces. The indicators that are not age-related (e.g. YGS (university admissions exam) average score) and may vary in the form of rural-urban settlement difference (e.g. airport access rate) were not included in the analysis. The new indicators were therefore analyzed under 10 headings: housing, income and wealth, health, education, environment, safety, civic participation, access to infrastructure services, social life and the level of happiness over the age of 65. In addition, age dependency ratio was also taken into account in the comments. Finally, a comparison table with parameters acceptable for the QOL of the elderly was developed for the chosen cities. In the present study, the old age limit was taken into account as 65 years and above, and how the concept of old age changed in the historical process was also observed. Demographic changes, elderly population rates, crude death rate and population estimates in Turkey have been examined with related statistics in mind. Scientific studies which have explored the factors in the world assessing the QOL in old age were reviewed. In this way, it has been ensured that the concept of QOL is viewed through the scope of old age requirements. The claim that “the accumulation of the elderly population in Turkey at the provincial level and the provincial QOL data is directly proportional” is endorsed as a result of the report. In cities where the concentration of elderly people is lower, it has been found that women, in particular, are less satisfied with health, education, housing, income and wealth satisfaction. It was found that even in settlements where the elderly density is poor, the elderly participate in the work life actively. It was concluded here that, in any conditions, elderly people should be assisted by a “strong pension system” at the national level or at least a “social assistance system” at the local level. It has been discovered that the variations in QOL here relate to local and national service opportunities. The old-age practices should therefore be planned in an “administrative context”. Although micro level (neighborhood, district, province level) management is important in the old age projects, this study shows that old age should be evaluated in a holistic manner and approaches to macro level (national scale) insights are also needed. According to the results of this report, the TURKSTAT QOL survey was found to be inadequate because the service distance between urban and rural areas cannot be taken into account. In this context, a rigorous study should be undertaken in compliance with both the needs of the elderly and the pillars of the society. The coexistence of old age and QOL is an important concept that has not been studied much in Turkey. This study is expected to provide data for future studies on ageing.

Keywords: Ageing, life satisfaction; rural ageing; urban ageing; quality of life.


Türkiye’de 65 Yaş Üstü Nüfusun Yaşlı Yığılması Konusunda Farklılık Gösteren İllere Göre Yaşam Kalitesinin İncelenmesi

Neşe Köse1, Nilgün Çolpan Erkan2
1İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi, Üstyapı Projeler Müdürlüğü, İstanbul
2Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul

Teknolojik gelişmeler, sağlık hizmetleri ve geriatri bilimindeki ilerlemeler ile yaşam kalitesindeki artış, insan ölümlerinin azalmasına ve yaşlı nüfusun, nüfus ortalaması içerisinde oransal artışına sebep olmuştur. Çalışmanın amacı; ülkemizdeki yaşlı nüfusun il düzeyinde kırsal ve kentsel yığılması ile illerin yaşam kalitesi verileri arasında bir ilişki olup olmadığını saptamaktır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de yaşlılığın mekânsal dağılımının il düzeyi verileri ile karşılaştırmalı analizine dayanmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı doğrultusunda mekânsal yığılma analizleri yaşlı nüfusun kentsel ve kırsal alandaki dağılımı lokasyon katsayısı yöntemi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir ve haritalandırma yöntemiyle görselleştirilmiştir. Buradan elde edilen sonuçlara göre yaşlıların kentte ve kırda en çok ve en az yığıldığı iller saptanmış, seçilen illerin Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu’ndan elde edilen yaşam kalitesi verileri detaylı olarak incelenmiş ve yorumlanmıştır. Bu çalışmaya göre “ülkemizdeki yaşlı nüfusun il düzeyinde (kırsal ve kentsel) yığılması ile illerin yaşam kalitesi verileri arasında doğrusal bir ilişki” olduğu saptanmıştır. Buna göre yaşlı yığılmasının yüksek olduğu yerleşmelerde yaşlıların yaşam kalitesi yüksek; yaşlı yığılmasının düşük olduğu yerleşmelerde yaşam kalitesi düşüktür. Ülkemizde kırsal yaşlanma oranlarının artması sebebiyle kır ve kent arasındaki olanak farklarının azaltılması, yaşam kalitesi ve yaşam memnuniyetinin artmasını sağlayacaktır. Yaşlılıkla ilgili yapılan araştırmalarda mikro düzey (mahalle, ilçe, il düzeyi) önemli olsa da bu çalışma yaşlılığın bütüncül olarak değerlendirilmesi gerektiğini ve makro düzeyde (ulusal ölçek) yaklaşımlara ihtiyaç duyulduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Kentsel yaşlanma, kırsal yaşlanma; yaşam kalitesi; yaşam memnuniyeti; yaşlılık.


Neşe Köse, Nilgün Çolpan Erkan. A Quality of Life Investigation of the Population Over 65 Years Old Concerning Turkish Provinces with Different Agglomeration Levels of Elderly Population. Megaron. 2021; 16(1): 129-142

Corresponding Author: Neşe Köse, Türkiye


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