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Assessing adaptation strategies against flood risk in urban coastal areas through Izmir Karsiyaka coastline case [Megaron]
Megaron. 2022; 17(2): 274-291 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2022.46666  

Assessing adaptation strategies against flood risk in urban coastal areas through Izmir Karsiyaka coastline case

Çağla Ercanlı1, Gökçeçiçek Savaşır2
1Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, İzmir, Türkiye
2Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Izmir

Sea level rise and floods have an important majority among the environmental problems due to global warming and climate change in the 21st century. Floods are becoming a threat to the coastal areas where physical and socio-economic focal points are mostly concentrated that may be affected by this change and has a risk of being underwater. Any changes at sea-level rise are thought to have important consequences for coastal cities which are mostly preferred for living and as trade and tourism centres. In addition to the basic problems in coastal cities, such as an increase in population and urbanisation, the effects of climate change reinforce the pressure on cities, which has been resulting in the unbalance between city structure, structure nature, and city-structure-nature. It is important to develop adaptation strategies for the formation of well-balanced natural and built environments that are resistant to the rise in sea levels and related floods. This study is based on the fact that these balances can only be maintained with holistic adaptation strategies that can be developed for the flood risk that is predicted to be exposed in the future projections of urban coastal area, and focuses on the architectural scale effects of this global problem. The main argument of the study is that the sea level rise and floods will constitute a risk in the Aegean Sea due to climate change in the long-term and sudden effects such as storm surges in Izmir Gulf. This study aims to assess different dimensions of flood risk within the framework of possible adaptation strategies on an architectural scale through the Izmir, Karsıyaka case. The first step of the adaptation studies is the holistic balance of the characteristics of the urban coastal areas regarding different parameters such as morphological, spatial, functional and administrative. The study is a case study research which is one of the architectural research methods. It is based on the current situation analysis of urban coastal areas with the parameters of geographical/morphological, spatial/functional and administrative which are extracted from the theoretical research. The study focuses on the question that “What kind of adaptation strategies can be developed for the Karşıyaka coastline in terms of morphological, spatial, functional and administrative aspects?” Adaptation strategies for different coast-urban space-building area relations will be put forward in line with the current situation analysis data. Within the scope of the article, three different study areas were selected within the borders of Karşıyaka district and located in the northern part of the inner bay. Features such as different building typologies, building areas with different functions, important transportation arteries, focal points, different public use, green space density are taken into consideration in the determination of these study areas. Three study areas are; Karşıyaka Pier area which is an important focus point for ferry transportation and public space for the city of Izmir, Bostanlı Sunset View Terraces area which is the open public space with the most intensive use of the coastline and Mavişehir residential area where dense housing settlements are located in close relationship with the coast. As a result of the analyses made with different parameters, it is seen that each coastal area has its own morphological, spatial, functional and structural characteristics and these characteristics can create different threats and advantages. It is possible to say that there are no climate-focused design strategies for the reorganisation of the balance of relations between the coast-urban spaces-building areas against the flood risk and that some practices are insufficient in the current situation. Inadequacies in the planning stages in the local administrative structure and infrastructure services, neglecting the flood risk in the design of urban coastal areas and not considering the flood risk as a design criterion for the new buildings and lack of precautions regarding the existing structures are the main identified problems. The findings support the main argument in this study that the analyses in architecture scale have a significant role in determining effective and correct strategies against the present and future local circumstances regarding the flood risk. The results obtained in the study will allow the multi-parameter assessment of flood risk in urban coastal areas. The contribution of the study to the field is based on its potential to create a track in broader scope for assessing other coastal areas with similarities and differences in terms of threats and possibilities with the Izmir Karsıyaka example.

Keywords: Climate change, Izmir Karsiyaka; flood; urban coastal areas; architectural adaptation strategies


Kentsel kıyı alanlarında taşkın riskine yönelik uyum stratejilerini İzmir Karşıyaka kıyı bandı örneği ile değerlendirmek

Çağla Ercanlı1, Gökçeçiçek Savaşır2
1Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Mimarlık Anabilim Dalı, Bina Bilgisi Doktora Programı, İzmir; İzmir Kavram Meslek Yüksekokulu, Mimari Restorasyon Programı, İzmir, Türkiye
2Dokuz Eylül University The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Architecture, Ph.D. in Architectural Design, İzmir; Izmir Kavram Vocational School, Architectural Restoration Programme, İzmir, Türkiye

Kıyı kentlerinde giderek artan nüfus, hızlı kentleşme gibi temel sorunların yanı sıra iklim değişikliği etkileri de kentler üzerindeki baskının artmasına neden olarak kent-yapı, yapı-doğa, kent-yapı-doğa arasındaki ilişkiler arası dengelerin bozulmasına neden olmaktadır. Doğal ve yapılı çevrelerin, deniz seviyelerinde oluşabilecek yükselmelere ve buna bağlı taşkınlara karşı dirençli ve dengeli doğal ve yapılı çevrelerin oluşumu için uyum stratejilerinin geliştirilmesi önemlidir. Bu dengelerin ancak, kentsel kıyı alanlarının gelecekte maruz kalabileceği öngörülen taşkın riskine yönelik geliştirilebilecek bütüncül uyum stratejileri ile korunabileceğine temellenen bu çalışmada, küresel ölçekten başlayan bu sorunun, mimarlık ölçeğindeki etkilerine odaklanılmaktadır. Çalışma, güncel ve hayati önem taşıyan bu sorunun farklı boyutlarını, İzmir İç Körfezi’nin farklı özellikler gösteren kıyı alanlarının analizi sonucunda ortaya konulan veriler ile mimarlık ölçeğinde geliştirilebilecek stratejiler çerçevesinde Karşıyaka kıyı bandı örneği üzerinden değerlendirmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma, mimari araştırma yöntemlerinden alan çalışması araştırması özelliğindedir ve teorik araştırmadan çıkarılan coğrafi/morfolojik, mekânsal/işlevsel ve yönetsel parametreler ile yapılacak kentsel kıyı alan kullanımları mevcut durum analizine dayandırılmaktadır. Mevcut durum analizleri verileri doğrultusunda farklı kıyı-kentsel mekân-yapı alanı ilişkileri için coğrafi/morfolojik, mekânsal/işlevsel, yönetsel parametreler kapsamında adaptasyon stratejileri ortaya konulacaktır. Bu kapsamdaki bulgular, mimarlık ölçeğinde yapılan analizlerin gelecekte ortaya çıkabilecek taşkın riskine yönelik etkili ve doğru stratejilerin belirlenmesinde önemli bir role sahip olduğu savını desteklemektedir. Çalışmada elde edilen sonuçlar, kentsel kıyı alanlarındaki taşkın riskinin çok parametreli olarak değerlendirilmesine olanak tanımanın yanı sıra İzmir Karşıyaka özelinde yapılacak değerlendirmenin, daha geniş kapsamda maruz kaldıkları tehditler ve sahip oldukları olanaklar yönünden benzerlikler ve farklılıklar taşıyan başka kıyı alanları için de yol gösterici bir izlek oluşturacağı düşünülmektedir.

Atıf için yazım şekli: Ercanlı Ç, Savaşır G. Assessing adaptation strategies against flood risk in urban coastal areas through Izmir Karsiyaka coastline case. Megaron 2022;17: 1: 274–291. [Article in Turkish]

Anahtar Kelimeler: İklim değişikliği, taşkın, kentsel kıyı alanları, mimari uyum stratejileri, İzmir Karşıyaka


Çağla Ercanlı, Gökçeçiçek Savaşır. Assessing adaptation strategies against flood risk in urban coastal areas through Izmir Karsiyaka coastline case. Megaron. 2022; 17(2): 274-291

Corresponding Author: Çağla Ercanlı, Türkiye


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