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Çaycuma Paper Mill and Analysis of Social Housing Estate [Megaron]
Megaron. Ahead of Print: MEGARON-09471 | DOI: 10.14744/megaron.2021.09471  

Çaycuma Paper Mill and Analysis of Social Housing Estate

Arif Mısırlı
Department Of Architecture, Trakya University Faculty Of Arcitecture, Edirne, Turkey

The emergence of industrial facilities in Anatolia following the establishment of the Republic in Turkey led to changes in the economic, social, and spatial structure of the cities. Industrial buildings also had an impact on the urbanization process due to the job opportunities they generate and the services they offer from housing to education. In addition, industrial facilities enabled the formation of a social environment depending on the housing diversity. In this study, the establishment of paper mills as one of the industrial development steps in Anatolia is discussed and Çaycuma SEKA Paper Mill located in the Western Black Sea Region is examined as a case.
The study aims to reveal the characteristics of the period by analyzing the history of the Çaycuma Paper Mill, which is one of the preliminary industrial facilities of the planned period with the establishment of the State Planning Organization, and the architectural analysis of the social housing estates. The problem of the study is that the housing estate, which has preserved its original values, has not been documented.
In this study, qualitative research methods were supported by a field survey. The field survey consisted of information gathering, on-site observation, interview with people, photographing, on-site measurement and visualization. The study was supported by drawings and documents from the official institutional archives of the buildings in the housing estate. Then, the spatial and visual analysis of housing estates was made with the findings. Furthermore, the significance of these housing estates was revealed in the context of the architectural and social life of the period.
While Çaycuma Paper Mill provided job opportunities to the people of the region engaged in agriculture, it also transformed the economic, physical, and social structure of the region. In the first years of the Republic, the Garden City practices, which emerged as a means of creating a new national identity, can also be seen on the housing estate of the factory. This site hosted the residences, which can accommodate 172 families ranging from 60 to 80 sqm sized, for officers and workers, and also for managers and assistant managers. It can be seen as an exemplary model that accelerates the change of the city by including the social facilities such as the guesthouse-club, cinema building, sports field, together with the residences.
The housing units were planned to form a clustered organization around dead-end streets. It is noteworthy that the houses were designed in a dense green environment. Except for one of the managers and the two assistant managers’ residences built in 1986, all residences are planned to accommodate two-family on each floor.
The simplicity of the plans and their coherence with the natural environment present the unique and regular planning of the site differing from the traditional fabric of the city. There are a total of 36 residences (two of which have been demolished) in the housing estate. Although the spatial organization is in 6 different types, the residences were built in 9 different types due to the differentiation consisting of the number of floors. The residences were in use during the assembly of the factory and were largely completed in early 1968.
Housing estate have architectural importance as they reflect the planning, construction technique, and material properties of the period in which they were built and they also have sociological importance since they reflect the socio-economic status, lifestyle, and quality of its employees in the industrial sector.
As a result, the factory and its housing estate is an example in which the effects of the modernization process of the city of Çaycuma on the urban structure and social life are reflected through a strong industrialization program. Çaycuma Paper Mill has became an important industrial complex of the period with its business and administrative buildings, residential buildings and social service buildings. The housing estate, on the other hand, became a modernization model for the city and was planned at the neighborhood scale. With this feature, it is an indication that the settlement schemes that started with the Early Republic Period were continued in the later years of the Republic. The housing estate, which is a reflection of modern architecture on an urban scale, is capable of responding to all kinds of needs of its users with its functions.

Keywords: Industrial development, industrial heritage in Republican Period, Çaycuma Paper Mill, social housing estate


Çaycuma Kağıt Fabrikası ve Sosyal Konut Sitesinin Analizi

Arif Mısırlı
Trakya Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Mimarlık Bölümü, Edirne

Cumhuriyet ile birlikte Anadolu’da sanayi tesislerinin kurulması kentlerin ekonomik, toplumsal ve mekânsal yapısını değişime uğratmıştır. Sanayi yapıları, yarattıkları iş olanakları ve barınmadan eğitime sundukları hizmetler ile kentleşme sürecini etkilemişlerdir. Bunun yanı sıra konut çeşitliliği ile sosyal ortamın oluşumuna olanak sağlamıştır. Bu çalışmada Anadolu’da endüstriyel kalkınma hamlelerinden biri olarak kâğıt fabrikaların kurulması ele alınmakta olup Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi’nde yer alan Çaycuma SEKA Kâğıt Fabrikası incelenmiştir. Çalışma, Cumhuriyet Dönemi ile başlayan endüstriyel kalkınma hamlesinin devamında Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı’nın kurulması ve planlı dönemin ilk temel sanayi tesislerinden biri olan Çaycuma Kâğıt Fabrikası’nın tarihçesi ve sosyal konut sitesinin mimari analizini yaparak döneminin özelliklerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır.
Çaycuma Kâğıt Fabrikası, tarımla uğraşan bölge halkına önemli ölçüde iş imkânı sağlarken, bölgenin ekonomik, fiziksel ve sosyal yapısını da dönüştürmüştür. Fabrika, bünyesinde barındırdığı yönetici, memur ve işçi konutlarıyla birlikte misafirhane-lokal, sinema, spor tesisleri gibi sosyal mekânları da içererek kentin değişimini ivmelendiren örnek bir model olarak tanımlanabilir.
Nitel araştırma yöntemlerinin alan çalışması ile desteklendiği bu çalışmada elde edilen fotoğraf, çizim ve gözlemlere dayalı bulgular ile sosyal site konutlarının mekânsal ve görsel analizi yapılmış ve inşa edildikleri döneme ait mimari ve sosyal yaşam bağlamında yeri ortaya konulmuştur. Sosyal site konutlarının plan kurgularının sadeliği ve içinde bulundukları doğal çevreyle uyumlu olmaları, kentin geleneksel dokusundan farklılaşarak kendine özgü ve düzenli bir planlamaya sahip olması dikkat çekici niteliktedir. Çaycuma Kâğıt Fabrikası ve sosyal sitenin Cumhuriyet Dönemi ile başlayan sanayi yerleşke şemalarının Cumhuriyetin ilerleyen yıllarında da devam ettirildiğini gösteren bir konumda olduğu saptanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Endüstriyel kalkınma, Cumhuriyet Dönemi endüstri mirası, Çaycuma Kâğıt Fabrikası, sosyal konut sitesi




Corresponding Author: Arif Mısırlı, Türkiye


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